How to choose the angle of view and focal length of the camera lens

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There are three parameters in any camera, which are closely related.

  • Matrix size (measured in inches, for example: 1/2 “, 1/3”, 1/4 “);
  • Focal length (FR) of the lens (denoted by the letter f, indicated in mm);
  • Viewing angle (measured in degrees).

With a wide viewing angle, the FG will be small.

Tips for choosing

The choice of the angle of view is determined by the tasks that are assigned to the camera. If you need to monitor a large area, and not highlight a specific object, a device with a 2.8-3.6 mm lens will do. The optimal angle is considered to be in the range from 70 to 140 °.

The 60 ° angle is close to the viewing angle of the human eye. This value is considered average. Devices can transmit a detailed picture when the object is located at a distance of up to 10 m.

A long-focus lens with a view of up to 30 ° is suitable for observing objects that are distant from the control point by 20-70 m.

Knowing the size of the matrix, the lens FH is calculated using the following formulas:

F = h × S / H or f = v × S / V

Where h. horizontal matrix size.

Matrix size 1/2 “ 1/3 “ 1/4 “
Horizontal, mm 6.4 4.8 3.2
Vertical, mm 4.8 3.6 2.4
  • S. distance to the object of video surveillance;
  • H. the size of the object in the horizontal plane;
  • V. vertical matrix;
  • V. the size of the object in the vertical plane.

To make it clearer, let’s give an example of how to choose the focal length of a CCTV camera.

There is a building with a facade length of 15 meters; distance of the object from the observation point. 25 meters. To find the optimal camera distance by substituting the known values ​​in the formula above, Selecting a 1/3 “camcorder.

We round up (so as not to lose part of the image) and we get that we need an 8 mm camera.

You can also use ready-made calculation tables or free online calculators.

What else needs to be considered

Everything described above applies to cameras with fixed phased array. Sometimes it is difficult to determine the size of the site over which you need to establish control. There is also another situation: the area of ​​the observation zone changes, then increasing, then decreasing. Here we recommend a device with a varifocal lens. Here you can customize the overview. In a separate category, devices are distinguished in which you can change the FG and the viewing angle (varies up to 360 ° in the horizontal plane and up to 180 ° in the vertical).

The AF range typically ranges from 2.8 to 50 mm. In some models, it is higher. When using varifocal optics, the image quality does NOT deteriorate when zooming in / out. This is possible thanks to the optical zoom of the lens.

If the angle needs to be changed, it is better to choose a camera with a motorized lens, such as are usually used in PTZ cameras, it also eliminates the need to physically transfer the camera.

Still have questions? Please contact Ivideon staff. We will show you how to choose the focal length of a CCTV camera, determine the area that will fall into the field of view of the equipment, or vice versa. We will select a device for a plot of a given area.

How to set up a CCTV camera

By itself, the concept of “setting up a CCTV camera” is not entirely correct. At least, this concept, in its usual sense, and does not reflect the essence. The thing is that the saying “the camera is not configured” does not mean the camera, but its lens. And if we really go into details, then. Camera lens (video camera matrix).

This article will talk about setting up the lenses of CCTV cameras.

First you need to figure out the possible modifications of video cameras, lenses, etc.

which, focus, better, cctv, camera

At the heart of almost any CCTV camera, the so-called. Video camera module.

A video camera module is a board with all the necessary elements, including a matrix, signal processor and connectors. The dimensions of such a module are usually 4×4 cm. On a good level, such a module is already a CCTV camera, but it will not work to “watch” It until we correctly focus the light on its matrix. This is where we need a lens. The challenge for any lens. correctly focus the light on the light-sensitive surface (matrix).

The camcorder module is NOT equipped with any lens mount, because In fact, it is a semi-finished product for a full-fledged CCTV camera. (Figure 1 shows the Module already with the lens mount). The challenge for a camcorder manufacturer is very simple. choose a housing for this module, equip with a lens mount and, if necessary, the lens itself. That is why so many new camcorder manufacturers have recently begun to appear. They just buy body modules and assemble the camera under their own brand.

Consider a standard CCTV camera device.

In this picture, we see the most ordinary video surveillance camera (CCTV).

In this example, the Camcorder Module is housed in a suitable housing, which is the lens mount.

These CCTV cameras are equipped with a C / CS mount lens. Such cameras are sold without lenses, since K. They are NOT considered consumer goods, which means they are bought for Special, often narrowly focused purposes, which cannot be provided by a simple Chinese video camera from the radio market.

A standard video camera can be equipped with any lens, it is only important to know the type of mount.

Another common type of CCTV cameras (Consumer goods). Modular video camera and modifications based on it.

Modular video camera. it is still the same video camera module, but already equipped with a lens mount (Holder) and the lens itself, which makes the video camera module. finished device ready for use.

However, such a video camera is difficult to use as a security camera. it has protection against dust and moisture, there is a convenient attachment, etc. Therefore, almost all consumer goods. This is a modular video camera housed in various housings. Often, a whole line of such cameras differs only in housings.

Let’s go back to the lens. Holders (Holder. This is the name of the lens mount to the module) installed on video camera modules can be of two main types and differ in the type of lens mount. “C / CS” (as in a standard camcorder) and M12.

Mounting type C / CS is shown in Fig. 1 and 2, M12 mounting type is shown in Fig. 3

What is their fundamental difference? First of all, it is the Aperture ratio, i.e. The amount of light that passes through the lens and hits the sensor. Basically. that’s all. Except that. There are many more C / CS mount lenses available than M12.

M12 mount lens types

The simplest and most common. standard “board” lens

These lenses differ only in focal length (magnification, viewing angle).

Next lens. Vario-vocal, i.e. Variable focal length (zoom, angle of view)

Such lenses, like conventional ones, differ only in focal length, but the focal length in a Varifocal lens can be changed within a specified range.

Next lens. Varifocal with ARD.

The difference from the usual Varifocal lens is the availability of ARD (Automatic Iris Control). CCTV camera must have aperture control function and corresponding connector.

C / CS mount lens types

As I wrote earlier, the C / CS mount type is more often used in more advanced and more expensive camcorders, therefore the most common here. Varifocal with ARD, and the rest are practically not used.

So, let’s move on to the process of setting up CCTV cameras. lens adjustment.

Since you have a question about lens adjustment, it means that you already have a camera and a lens, so I will not go into the details of lens selection.

Suppose we already have a video camera with a lens, but the picture quality indicates the need for adjustment.

Let’s start with the simplest. Lens M12-Board (Fig. 3,4,8).

The focus adjustment process in such a video camera consists in moving the lens closer or further away from the matrix. Since the lens is threaded into the holder, in order to change the distance from the lens to the sensor, it is necessary to rotate (twist or twist) the lens into the holder. on the thread. There are several nuances worth considering.

  • As a rule, the lens does not rotate freely in the holder, but is somehow fixed in it. In Fig. 8 we can see the fixing screw. To rotate the lens into the holder, loosen the fixing screw, and after adjustment. fix again.

Instead of a fixing screw, a special spring can be used on various models of CCTV cameras, which prevents the free rotation of the lens (Fig. 9)

In this case, the lens can be turned by hand without additional manipulations.

There are also CCTV cameras with lens fixing using thread sealant or glue. As a rule, such camcorders never require adjustment, because. The lens simply has a chance to “jump off” from the desired point. If, however, such a need arises, there is only one option. tearing off the lens from the glued place by twisting along the thread. This may require pliers. With such a “breakdown”, there is a high probability of damage to the lens, holder or module.

  • If the lens is twisted too far into the holder, there is a danger of damage to the matrix. DO NOT screw the lens too hard into the holder.
  • For the correct setup of a CCTV camera, it is better to choose its real location, distance to objects of observation and temperature. It also makes sense to adjust the camera in low light conditions. when all objects are still visible in the camera image, but NOT bright lighting. The fact is that if the camera is adjusted in bright light, then, at dusk, the picture may not be clear again, but if, on the contrary, the picture will remain clear in any light. Although the last tip is more about adjusting aperture lenses.

When setting up a video camera, you must watch, in real time, the picture from the camera. The essence of the setting. to achieve the highest quality picture. In order not to damage the matrix and DO NOT unscrew the lens from the holder, it is necessary to turn the lens only in the direction in which the image becomes better. When the maximum quality of the picture on the monitor is reached, we will continue to turn the lens in the same direction and again we will see the deterioration of the picture, we will return the lens back to reaching the maximum quality. everything. If necessary. Fixing the lens.

Customization. M12 lens. Varifocal and varifocal with ARD (Fig. 5,6,7,10,11).

In principle, there is a big difference whether there is an ARD in our lens or not. There are also lenses with Manual iris. One has only to take into account that the position of the aperture slightly affects the focus. The recommendation is as follows: Make adjustments with a fully open aperture, i.e. In low light conditions, then when the light changes, the focus will not “float”.

Varifocal lens. This is a lens with a variable focal length (approximation, angle of view). By changing the focal length, the lever “Adjust the focal length” responds, which is located closer to the entrance pupil (external lens). The sharpness adjustment lever corresponds to the “Sharpness adjustment”.

Levers, as a rule, are also lens retainers. For fixing. it turns and tightens (slightly) like a normal screw. clockwise to adjust (attenuate). counterclock-wise.

If the camera was already standing and the sharpness simply “ran away”, so we will NOT touch the focal length, we only need to adjust the sharpness. For this it is necessary to turn the “Sharpness adjustment” lever along the axis of rotation of the lens. Figure: 12

When setting up a video camera, you must watch, in real time, the picture from the camera. The essence of the setting. to achieve the highest quality picture. It is necessary to turn the lever only in the direction in which the image becomes better. When the maximum quality of the picture on the monitor is reached, we will continue to turn the lever in the same direction and again we will see the deterioration of the picture, we will return the lens back to reaching the maximum quality. everything. We fix the lever.

If, in addition to sharpness, we need to change the focal length, i.e. Change the angle of view of the camcorder, zoom in or out, in this case it is necessary to make adjustments using the “Adjust the focal length” lever. Figure: 13

When setting up a video camera, you must watch, in real time, the picture from the camera. The essence of the setting. achieve the required focal length. It is necessary to turn the lever in the direction in which the image becomes better. When you turn the lever, the image will blur and at some point it will become impossible to see anything, therefore, periodically it is necessary to adjust the sharpness (using the “sharpness adjustment” lever). When the required focal length is reached, adjust the sharpness as described in the previous paragraph. Lock levers.

I will give a couple more general tips for setting up CCTV cameras:

To set up cameras, it is always better to look at what appears on the screen yourself, but this is not always possible. If, for example, we set up cameras at an object, then certain difficulties may arise with the transfer of information from the one who is watching, therefore who is setting it up. In addition, if a digital video surveillance system is installed at the facility, slight delays and distortions may occur when processing the signal from the camera and displaying the image on the screen. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to use a portable monitor that connects directly to the camera and allows the engineer to see the analog signal in real time. There are special ones. portable (portable) service monitors designed specifically for setting up and diagnosing CCTV cameras. They run on batteries (accumulators) and, as a rule, have a convenient attachment to the hand of an engineer. Some of them are equipped with a 12 Volt power output for connecting a camcorder directly from this monitor. This is especially convenient at the stage of installation, when it is not yet possible to supply power from a central source. In this case, as a rule, the setting of cameras is postponed to the final stage of installation, after the launch of the entire video surveillance system. Accordingly, it is not possible to foresee in advance possible shortcomings, lack of video cameras, and significantly increases labor costs and time, because You have to go up to the same video camera at least twice. Having such a monitor with a 12V power output. You can check and configure CCTV cameras immediately, at the time of installation. This will allow you to choose the optimal installation site, configure the video camera, even before attaching it, cutting wires, etc., and also allows you to make sure that the camera is working. Also, such monitors allow you to visually diagnose such a type of interference as: Power supply interference, Stray currents, etc. All this will undoubtedly help save time and ease the work of installers and engineers.

What cable to choose for video surveillance. main types and their characteristics

Installing any video surveillance system, except wireless, is never complete without a cable. The cable transfers the video signal from the camera to the DVR, provides power, and also connects additional devices, for example, a microphone. There are not so many types of video cables today, in this material we will tell you about the most common and widely used.

The choice of cable for video surveillance depends on a number of key points. For example, when installing IP video surveillance, a “twisted pair” wire is usually used, that is, a regular network LAN, similar to the one with which we connect a computer to the Internet. The cable for IP video surveillance has one interesting feature: with the help of it you can not only connect the camera to the DVR for video signal transmission, but also supply power to the camera, and also connect a sound recording device. We’ll talk about twisted pair later. We will also analyze the 3 main types of cables used for video surveillance, but first things first.

Coaxial cable for video surveillance

Components of a coaxial cable

To connect analog cameras, the most commonly used coaxial cable for video surveillance, like the one that connects an external antenna to a TV or receiver. This type of cable is a copper conductor enclosed in a thick layer of foam dielectric, which is covered on the outside with a shielding protective sheath, which provides good protection against interference and possible signal loss. Most often, domestic brands RK-75-2-13, RK-75-4-12 (RK, radio frequency cable), or imported analogs are used for video surveillance. RG-59, RG-6, RG-11.

When choosing a coaxial cable, it is necessary to take into account such important parameters as the length and location of the installation (indoors or outdoors), and depending on this, purchase a suitable brand of wire.

If the cameras are far away from the DVR and from each other (the line length is more than 200-300 meters), the transmitted signal can be significantly weakened: a simple axiom applies here. the longer and thinner the cable, the greater the signal loss. So, when choosing, it is very important to take into account the laying distance, and, based on it, already choose a suitable cable for video surveillance systems.

For example, we lay ZhK-75-2-13 at a line length not exceeding 100 meters, and at longer distances (from 100 to 300 meters) we use the RK-75-3- brands., At distances over 300 meters, usually use UTP (more on that below).

The RG-6 cable differs from its Russian counterparts RK-75 primarily in that it has a larger diameter of the central conductor and sheath. It is also capable of passing a slightly larger frequency range than the RK-75, for example, HD-SDI cameras refuse to work with RK, and perfectly transmit the signal via RG-6 with a line length of more than 10 m.

For clarity and more details, we give a table reflecting the dependence of the type of wire on the distance.

Cable selection depending on the distance of the recorder to the camera

When choosing a coaxial cable for video surveillance, be sure to make sure that the center conductor is all copper, otherwise the signal will be very weak.

Among other things, coaxial cable differs in other technical criteria, such as:

  • Flexibility. in cases where the laying of a video cable involves its bending in several places, it is necessary to purchase a wire with a stranded central conductor, which will have increased flexibility compared to a monolithic.
  • Wave resistance. for video surveillance, 75 Ohm cables are most often used;
  • The degree of protection against interference. the presence of shielding shells;
  • Insulation diameter;
  • Signal attenuation degree;

Pros. The main advantage of this type of cable is its high resistance to interference, reasonable price, the ability to transmit both video and audio signals.

Minuses. The disadvantages of a coaxial cable include the high cost of connectors, easy damage, restrictions on the distance of laying. When using RK brands, it becomes necessary to lay the power cable separately, although this moment cannot always be attributed to disadvantages, since For budget systems, the power supply option for a separate cable will be much cheaper. saving lies in supplying power to several cameras at the same time, as well as in the high cost of KVN.

Also, when power is supplied separately from the main signal transmission cable, it becomes possible to connect cameras to a network far from the DVR, which is almost impossible to do with a combined cable.

Powered combo cable

In cases where the camera is powered and the signal is transmitted from one point, it is most convenient to use a combined cable for video surveillance systems. It is suitable for both analog and digital devices. This is the same coaxial wire with a resistance of 75 ohms, but in one bundle with the power wires. Thanks to this interlacing, power supply of cameras and signal transmission can be provided without laying additional wires.

Also, in addition to everything, such a cable may have wires for connecting additional functional elements (for example, a microphone), and for controlling the camera (for example, for controlling a camera rotating device). An example is the KKSEV cable, which, in addition to the coaxial core, has separate wires for power and audio signal.

The combined high-frequency cable (KVN) with power conductors is one of the most expensive. It is used to create a video surveillance system, in which each camera will be connected to the network using a separate power supply, each 12V output of which is equipped with an individual fuse, or with a small number of cameras.

Among the most commonly used combined cables for video surveillance are the following brands: KVN-2P, KVK-V-2.

Twisted pair

UTP cable for video surveillance, or “twisted pair”

Usually, we resort to using twisted pair in cases where the distance of the intended line from the camera to the signal receiving device is from 300 to 1000 m (the distance of a possible laying of a working video surveillance line using a twisted pair can be up to 3 km.). The convenience of using this type of cable for video surveillance systems lies in the large number of conductors under one braid. Thanks to this, it is possible to supply power to the cameras along one line, and transfer the main signals (video, audio), and use the remaining wiring to control the camera, as well as to connect an additional camera (there are enough wires in the cable. 8 pcs.).

Several types of “twisted pair” cable are distinguished depending on the structural features. UTP, FTP, STP.

  • UTP cable is the simplest, it does not have protective shielding, and consists of 8 insulated, twisted pairs of conductors, placed in a common protective sheath. The disadvantages of UTP cables include their low resistance to interference, therefore, in cases of laying communications for video surveillance near electrical wiring, and other sources of interference, it is better to use cables with additional protection.
  • FTP cable is characterized by the presence of a common foil shielding sheath. Thanks to its presence, this cable can be laid next to electrical cables and other sources of interference. Very important Keep the foil screen intact, and do not exceed the minimum bending radius. no more than 8 outer diameters of the cable. External cable protection can be made of PVC or rigid polyethylene.
  • STP cable also has a common protective sheath, but NOT foil, but copper braid. In addition, each conductor in such a cable is solid copper, insulated with polyolefins, and has an individual protective foil shield. External insulation is usually made of fire resistant PVC. The use of this type of cable is necessary in cases of laying over 90 meters in the presence of numerous sources of interference.

When laying STP cable, the shield must be grounded, otherwise it will act like an antenna attracting electromagnetic radiation!

Twisted-pair cable for CCTV cameras is quite easy to lay and connect, therefore in cases of frequent changes in the structure of video surveillance, as well as when connecting a large number of cameras over long distances, we recommend using a UTP cable.

The undoubted advantage of the twisted pair is the large number of conductors, which ensures the connection of all the main functional elements. Also, this cable has a lower cost compared to coaxial.

One source describes the experience of connecting cameras at 700 meters. Colleagues share their observations that UTP collected much less interference in their case compared to shielded FTP, so, perhaps, UTP cable for video surveillance is the best choice in such cases. But maybe they just forgot to ground the shield, who knows.

When connecting analog cameras using such a cable, transceivers (Video Baloon) are used as an adapter, which also remove interference from the cable. We suggest you watch a very intelligible video in connecting a CCTV camera using a twisted pair.

IP video surveillance cable

IP video surveillance cable with RJ-45 connector

To connect digital IP cameras, the same UTP cable is used with crimped RJ-45 connectors at both ends. Its advantage lies in the possibility of laying one common twisted pair line for the whole system of IP video surveillance cameras, with the introduction of a switch (switch). In this case, the cameras can be powered in three ways:

  • Laying a separate power cable for each camera;
  • Installation of power supplies in the places where each camera is installed;
  • Power supply of cameras using free wires in twisted pair.

The third option is suitable only for those cases when the camera and the switch support PoE (Power of Ethernet) technology, which allows power supply via an Ethernet cable for IP video surveillance, in other cases, it is necessary to use Passive PoE injectors, which allow combining signal and power transmission from both sides one cable.

Which one is better to choose?

Which cable to choose for a video surveillance system?

As a rule, the choice of the appropriate type of cable for video surveillance depends on the specific situation, your desires and the selected cameras. In the case of IP cameras, this is almost always the unambiguous use of a UTP cable with RJ-45 connectors, analog video surveillance with a small number of cameras can do with ordinary coaxial at distances not exceeding 100-300 meters, but for the possibility of power supply and signal transmission over one cable you must use either a powered combo cable or twisted pair cable. With a large number of cameras and longer distances, we would recommend using a twisted pair cable. UTP, FTP or STP cable. depending on distance, place of use (outdoor, indoor) and sources of interference.

Differences in the place of laying communications will consist in the fact that for outdoor cameras it is necessary to use a cable with protective external insulation made of solid polyethylene, and for internal video surveillance systems, you can take it from ordinary PVC. Also, a cable for outdoor installation can have a steel carrying cable in the structure, which is necessary to strengthen the strength of the cable when laying the cable through the air (KVK-Pt).

In this article, we tried to make out as much as possible the question of how to choose the right cable for video surveillance, talked about the main types and their characteristics, tried to highlight in as much detail as possible the design differences that play a major role in choosing the most suitable cable, depending on one or another video surveillance systems and your preferences. We wish you good luck and hope that this material remains useful to you.!

Focusing the camera: Use manual and automatic modes

This is a quick guide on which focus modes to use with the camera in a given shooting situation. Many aspiring photographers have little understanding of when to use auto mode and when to manually tune the camera.

Why use the manual mode, if there is an automatic in-camera?

As with any automation, automatic focus does not always work perfectly. Sometimes, the autofocus system can focus completely in the wrong part of the frame on which you want to focus on, in your photo.

Don’t get us wrong, today’s DSLRs and mirrorless cameras can focus faster than ever before. However, to create truly creative and artistic photos, you need to adjust the focus yourself.

When will autofocus work incorrectly?

Your camera may err in autofocus when it lacks light or when photographing solid objects, such as photographing a brown dog in an open field. In this case, the camera simply will not be able to determine the focus point.

In such situations, the lens will move back and forth, trying to lock on at least some point. If, in this case, there are some foreground object. bush, branch, etc., then most likely the camera will focus on it.

Moving subjects can be very problematic subjects for autofocus. For such shooting, you need to make sure that you have selected the correct focus mode, this is the only way to get beautiful, clear and sharp images.

Which focus modes to use and when?

The first thing to decide is whether you want to use autofocus or switch to manual focus mode. There are several situations where manual focus is the best option. To make sure you are in auto mode, look to have the lens set to AF, not MF.

Autofocus offers two different modes, one of which must be set on the camera. This One-Shot AF (Canon) / Single-Servo AF (Nikon) and AI Servo AF (Canon) / Continuous-Servo AF (Nikon). One-Shot / Single-Servo is the best option for shooting stationary subjects. After the system focuses on the desired subject, you can safely take your picture.

As the name suggests, in AI Servo AF / Continuous-Servo AF mode, the camera continuously focuses on the subject, this mode is more convenient for tracking the movement of the subject. In this case, you can take a picture at any time during shooting, even if the subject is out of focus. This provides for faster, more productive work.

Many cameras offer another autofocus mode: AI Focus AF (Canon) or Auto AF (Nikon). In this mode, the camera automatically detects whether the subject is stationary or moving and switches to Corresponding mode accordingly.

Do not confuse the choice of AF mode with the choice of the focus area, which can also be set automatically or manually.

What is the Difference Between Autofocus Mode and Focus Area?

The focus mode determines how the lens will focus. And the AF area determines where the camera will focus. Focus areas may vary on different camera models and manufacturers.

Working with the camera, the photographer has the opportunity to choose whether it will focus on one point, or several. By looking through the viewfinder and holding the shutter button halfway, you can see how the camera focuses. When focusing on one point, you can move the point.

How many AF points to use?

It all depends on what you are shooting. If you set focus on several points, then the camera automatically chooses which ones to use to focus on the subject.

However, if the subject is large enough, you may NOT be satisfied with how the camera focuses. For example, when shooting a monument, the camera can focus on the legs of the statue, while we would like the focus to be on the face. It also runs the risk of focusing on the foreground while the subject is in the background.

At the same time, autofocusing with multiple points can be more productive when shooting a subject against a solid background. For example, when photographing birds against a blue sky. The more AF points a camera has, the more it will focus and the better it will be. Follow your subject as it moves through the frame. In the second cases, it will be preferable to use focusing on several points.

Of all the available AF points, the center point provides the best accuracy. It is best to focus precisely on this point, and then, after fixing the focus, move the camera so that to compositionally create an attractive photo.

When to use manual focus?

Manual focus can come in handy when the focal length remains unchanged. For example, I photograph auto racing, you can automatically focus on the track, and then, when the car approaches, switch to manual focus and, following the auto, focus manually.

Manual focus is also the only option when the camera is unable to concentrate on its own. Some lenses allow you to constantly adjust the camera focus manually, so you don’t have to switch from manual to automatic all the time.

How to focus with Live View

Live View focuses perfectly in manual mode. When going into auto focus mode, don’t expect miracles from your camera.

Auto focus

Auto mode in Live View may function differently on each camera model. Most cameras have fast auto focus and a slower but more accurate mode with face detection.

Manual control

Live View helps with manual focusing as you can use the screen to enlarge part of the screen and make fine adjustments to the focus. This is especially useful for landscape photography and macro photography. The photographer’s task is to make very precise adjustments, as the difference between sharp and crisp can be significant.

Maximum depth of field and hyperfocal focus

Landscape photography usually requires precise manual focus. Even though only one center point will be most effective during focusing, you can increase the depth of field by using smaller apertures and what is called hyperfocal focusing.

To create the clearest landscape photography possible, you need to set focus to infinity using manual focus. There is a special scale on the lens for this.

Using Live View or in the viewfinder, the whole space will be blurred, you need to manually adjust the camera so that the image becomes sharp.