Technical characteristics of smartphones for “dummies”. Screen and case

When choosing a smartphone in a store, it is better not to use the services of consultants, but to choose just the device you like as part of your budget.

Often, the store employee will advise you not the best option, but a smartphone that is poorly sold or from which he will receive the maximum commission. The task of these people is to help the store, not the buyer.

When choosing a smartphone via the Internet, there are also a lot of questions, because the product card indicates so many characteristics. How to figure out all this?

In this article, consisting of several parts, we will try to consider the basic technical characteristics of modern smartphones. The material will be useful not only to beginners, but also to those who are already versed in the topic.

And in the first part we will talk about the housing and screens of modern phones.

Technical characteristics: smartphone screen

The screen is a very extensive topic, there is a lot of all kinds of terms and concepts. We will try to deal with the main of them.

Display type: IPS, amOLED

All modern screens are divided into two types: liquid crystalline (mainly IPS) and displays based on organic LEDs (OLED). We will not talk about them in detail here, since there are already many interesting materials about this on Deep-Review pages:

It is worth paying attention to the fact that the brightness of any Amoled screen is regulated by rapidly flickering the backlight (Shim), which causes some people unpleasant sensations.

Depending on the model of the smartphone, the backlight can work with a frequency of 100 Hz (that is, it turns on/off 100 times per second) to 500 Hz and even higher. At a frequency of 300 Hz, this flicker will no longer feel a single person, but most OLED displays work at the frequency of DC Dimming. This is a software (and sometimes hardware) solution to reduce harmful flicker. Sometimes software translucent filters are used, sometimes brightness changes by lowering voltage.

There is no such problem on IPS. Here, the brightness is regulated either by voltage or the PWM at a very high frequency (thousands or even tens of thousands of Herz).

IPS screens today are mainly found only on budget and medium-budget devices, since AMOLED technology has a lot of significant advantages: endless contrast, very high peak brightness for viewing HDR content, wide color cover, etc.

Screen update: 60/90/120 Hz

This parameter has nothing to do with the shouting of the screen and tells us how often the picture is updated on the smartphone display. If this information is not indicated in the characteristics, then the screen supports only the standard frequency. 60 Hz. In other words, every second the picture on such a screen is updated 60 times.

Starting since 2020, almost all flagships support a high screen update. from 90 Hz and above.

Almost everyone can see the difference between 60 and 120 Hz. Any animation, such as scrolling pages in a browser or list of rooms in a phone book, looks more smooth and pleasant. However, it should be understood that the increased frequency of the screen update affects the autonomy of the device.

On some smartphones, this technology is implemented very ineffective. A vivid example of poor implementation is the new Galaxy S20 line from Samsung. The fact is that the high frequency is not always needed and the device should be able to adjust the update frequency at the hardware level depending on the task performed. OnePlus 8 Pro or Oppo Find X2 Pro do just that, which is why they work from one charge noticeably longer than the same Galaxy S20 Ultra.

In general, 120 Hz is a very pleasant option if it is implemented correctly.

Screen resolution and pixel density

Not everything is as simple as it may seem at first glance. over, an incorrect understanding of this parameter sometimes leads to meaningless disputes and unreasonable claims towards some manufacturer.

As you know, the image on the screen is built from a huge number of small points. pixels. The more there are one inch (2.54 cm), the more clear the picture will be. Pixel density is measured in PPI (from English. Pixels per Inch. the number of pixels by one inch).

It would seem that it can be difficult here? The higher the density of pixels in PPI, the better! But, in fact, not quite and not always.

With identical resolution and pixel density, the picture on the IPS screen will look more clear and high-quality than on Amoled.

Each pixel (point) on the IPS screen in reality consists of 3 subpixels: red, green and blue. Combining these three colors, we can get any other desired color:

And on the AMOLED display, each pixel (point) consists of 2 subpixels: red and green or blue and green. over, they are a little strange and instead of one green subpixel of a normal size, two small. As a result, with this location, green subpixels comes out 2 times more than the rest:

It turns out that if we compare two smartphones with the same sizes and resolution, but different types (Amoled and IPS), then the AMOLED display in the reality of red and blue subpixels will be half as much as on the IPS screen.

That is, with the stated the same pixel density, the IPS screen will look more clear than Amoled. It is for this reason that all modern flagships with Amoled screens have ultra-high resolutions that reach QHD or even 4K! For acceptable clarity of the image of the amOled screen, the pixel density should be at least 400 ppi, or better-500.

On the other hand, for the IPS screen there is no great sense in raising pixel density above 328 ppi. For most users, the difference will simply not be noticeable. It is for this reason that the actual Apple smartphones with IPS screens have such a low resolution. This is a big plus, since low resolution reduces energy consumption and increases productivity without affecting the clarity of the picture.

Some manufacturers (for example, Sony) produce smartphones with screen resolution 4K. This is done only for marketing purposes, there is no practical benefit from this. Only one shortcomings.

The following resolutions are the most popular today:

Here we see very large frames above and below, as well as relatively wide frames on the sides. This design is extremely rare today (mainly on the iPhone). The remaining manufacturers try to increase this parameter as much as possible so that the screen occupies the entire space.

Here is an example of the ratio ~ 94%:

How the IPS screens of modern smartphones are arranged?

To understand how the IPS screen works, you need to slightly recall school physics lessons.

What is light?

In simple language, this is the energy that we can see with our own eyes. Light spreads in the environment, like ordinary waves through water. But only if an ordinary wave fluctuates in only one direction:

Then the electric field of the light wave has a chaotic direction and looks schematically as follows:

But we can make it very easy to make all the waves go parallel to each other, as in water. To do this, it is enough to extinguish the “extra” waves.

Such a process is called the polarization of light. That is, if we pass all the light through the “small grille with cutouts” (polarizer), only those waves will pass through it, the direction of which coincides with the cuts, and the rest will simply be repaid:

Now we have a light wave, in which the electric field fluctuates in only one direction. Everything is very simple, isn’t it?

And what will happen if we pass this wave through another polarizer (“small lattice”), only turn this second polarizer 90 ° relative to the first? True, such a grate will only miss horizontal waves. But we do not have such waves, after the first polarizer there were only vertical. As a result, the light wave will fully go out the “lattice” of the polarizer:

That’s all we need to know about the light, to figure out how the smartphone IPS screen works!

The principle of operation of IPS matrixes

The principle of operation of the LCD display is incredibly simple. The entire screen consists of many pixels. small points that form an image. Each such point (pixel), in turn, consists of 3 subpixels (small cells). red, green and blue.

If we need a certain point on the screen to burn with yellow, we turn on the red and green subpixels in full brightness, and reduce the brightness of the blue to zero (turn it off at all). Since these subpixels are incredibly small, all 3 colors (bright red, bright green and “absent blue”) merge for us in one. yellow:

If now the brightness of the green subpixel is reduced by 2 times, our yellow pixel will turn into orange and t.D. That is, changing the brightness of 3 color subpixels, we will receive the desired point of point on the screen.

How can you change the brightness of each individual subscription on the smartphone screen? Where do the colors come from? Let’s deal with this issue on the example of one single subpixel, say, red.

Put a lamp that will radiate natural light. We place a polarizer behind the lamp so that natural light becomes polarized, now put a red filter and at the end we will place another polarizer, we will only expand it 90 ° relative to the first. We got the following “sandwich”:

We turn on the brightness of the lamp to the maximum, the light begins to pass through the first polarizer and becomes polarized, then the light passes through the red filter, in which waves of any length different from red are cut off. As a result, the red light goes to the second polarizer and is completely extinguished (see. A little higher explanation about the waves of light).

It turns out, no matter how bright the lamp is shining, the red subpixel will never burn. How can we regulate brightness? I forgot to clarify an important condition. the lamp is one for all pixels. If we reduce the brightness of the lamp, the brightness and the entire screen will fall. But how then to change the brightness of individual subpixels of red, green and blue colors?

Here, liquid crystals come to help! What is it at all? Speaking in a very simple language. this is such a viscous liquid, the molecules of which are ordered in a certain way. over, they can change their position under the influence of voltage (as well as temperature and many other factors).

If we place liquid crystals between two transparent electrodes so that their molecules are lined up in a spiral, we will get a very interesting “design”:

The light, passing in this spiral, will change its polarization from “vertical” to “horizontal”. In other words, a wave of light passes through the crystal along the “paths” built from molecules.

Now look at the previous picture with a lamp and polarizers. If immediately after the first polarizer, place liquid crystals in the form of such a spiral, then the light passing along them will change its polarization (the waves will turn around 90 °) and without the slightest loss will pass through the second polarizer. After all, light waves are now turned along the “holes” of the second polarizer.

So it turned out to skip completely all the light through the red cell (subpixel). But it will burn at maximum brightness only if the spiral is fully wrapped and the whole light will “turn” by 90 °.

If we begin to gradually destroy the spiral, less and less light will pass through the second polarizer. And when the spiral is completely “destroyed”, the light will again bend the second polarizer:

How are OLED screens of modern smartphones?

I cited a pretty detailed explanation for the principle of operation of OLED screens in a last article, so here I will only briefly describe the differences from IPS screens.

OLED screens build a picture exactly according to the same principle as IPS. Here, each pixel also consists of 3 subpixels of red, green and blue colors. And in the same way to obtain a specific color of one pixel, you need to change the brightness of each of the subpixels.

However, the key difference between the AMOLED displays and the IPS is that the screen on organic LEDs does not need backlight. Accordingly, there are no lamps or other lights in smartphones with Amoled screens.

Each subpixel, consisting of organic matter, radiates light itself when current passes through it. In other words, each point on the smartphone OLED screen is a “light bulb”, the brightness of which can be easily changed individually.

Which is better, OLED or amOLED? And then what is Super amOled?

If you notice, I constantly interchange the words OLED and amOLED. Despite the fact that formally these are different concepts, when we talk about smartphone screens, both words can be used.

The difference between them is that AMOLED is the same OLED screen only with an active matrix (Active Matrix OLED). But since there is no smartphone where an OLED screen with a passive matrix (PMOLED) was used, always, speaking the word OLED, everyone involves AmOLED.

Super AMOLED from Samsung

Super AMOLED and other fashionable words (Dynamic AMOLED, XDR OLED)-this is, in fact, the same AmoLED screen, with very insignificant constructive differences. And most importantly, here are not so much these differences as the name itself.

The fact is that Samsung was a pioneer in the field of OLED screens and made a huge contribution to the popularization of the word Amoled. In fact, this word has become a kind of brand. The company used it instead of the usual OLED and wanted to register the appropriate trademark.

However, she failed to do this, since the word amoled literally meant OLED technology with an active matrix. Accordingly, the name of the technology cannot be patented. it was generally accepted and before the appearance of the first screens from Samsung.

Then, other companies connected to the production of amOLED screens, in particular LG. And Samsung had to do something, because it was on the OLED screens that the company made the main bet. And to promote the generally accepted name, making a huge service to competitors, it would not be very good.

The solution was found very quickly. Samsung slightly changed the design of the display, making the touch layer part of the screen, while in the usual AMOLED, the touch layer is a separate element that is placed on top of the screen. Because of this, the whole structure has become a little thinner.

Now the word Super-AMOLED is not just the name of the technology that everything can be used, but by its own brand and a distinctive feature of Samsung screens from the screens of other companies (although, again, there is no significant difference).

OLED screens are divided into AmOLED, SUPER AMOLED, PM-OLED, P-OLED, and Dynamic Amoled.

AMOLED (Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Dior) is all the same organic LEDs equipped with an active matrix. In fact, a transistor and capacitor are connected to each pixel, and to speak rudely, this is the same TFT, only a little different. This technology is ideal for displays with a large diagonal (from 10 inches) and, in principle, the size may be unlimited.

Super AMOLED is a more perfect AMOLED modification. In principle, this is already clear by the name. The perfection of this technology is that Samsung was able to integrate the touch layer into the display. In the usual case, this layer is superimposed on top of the screen, and here everything is a single whole. Thanks to this solution, energy efficiency has significantly improved, as well as the screens began to work much better in bright light. All this is quite expensive, and therefore Super AMOLED screen can only be found in the premium smartphone segment.

PM-OLED (Passive Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode). A passive matrix is ​​already used here. It differs from active (the one in AMOLED) in that it can include several LEDs at once, and not for each LED individually. This of course affects the worse on the quality of the image, but they are quite cheap when creating. But there is one reservation: such screens are now impossible to find in mobile devices, because the technology is ideal for displays up to three inches. Actually, now even 5 inches screen are not found among popular devices anywhere. And we’ll probably keep silent about three inches.

P-OLED (Plastic Organic Light Emitting Dior). In no case should this technology be confused with PM-OLED. Because the essence is the use of a plastic substrate, and in PM-OLED the essence in the passive matrix.

Previously, OLED screens had a glass of glass under them. But then suddenly everyone wanted more interesting screens, so that with bends and different shapes. And the glass, as you know, does not particularly bend (because it bursts). Actually, therefore, the glass had to be replaced with plastic. Therefore, now we can see screens with bent edges on the market. Disputes about the convenience of such screens are still not subside. And with the advent of flexible OLED panels, all this reached a new level.

Well, now about the most committed. this is Dynamic AMOLED. This technology is the latest version of Amoled Samsung production screens. The essence is the same, but such screens support HDR10. The pluses can also include a reduced amount of harmful blue spectra radiation. Although recently British scientists have proved that a blue glow does not affect the eyes and does not spoil his vision. But this is a completely different story. On this, perhaps you can finish this analysis of the types of screens. We will not argue that this time we went through all technologies very superficially, and some in principle could not be called, since they are not found in smartphones now. Much was missed from sight, because we do not have enough knowledge to get to absolutely every aspect and illuminate them. Too many additional additional parameters, features, manufacturers, and so on. We tried to do both briefly and as capacious as possible.

In general, all this undertaking was designed to help ordinary users understand which screen will suit them more. But here everything is actually resting against the budget for the purchase of a smartphone, and personal preferences for brands. Therefore, summarizing, we can say that LCD is budget, will not cause inconvenience, will fully satisfy all your needs and desires. But OLED is a more advanced technology, more effective, it works better and after a smartphone with OLED it will be difficult for you to switch to LCD, because color rendering will openly cut your eyes for the first time. It will be especially noticeable as LCD is more in blue compared to OLED.

Screens of popular devices

Depending on the manufacturer, it may change. Companies producing smartphones with Android OS use standard values:

For Apple devices

IPhone model Diagonal, inch Resolution, pixels
4.4s 3.5 640 × 960
5, 5C, 5s four 640 × 1136
6, 6s four.7 750 × 1334
6, 6s 5.5 1080 × 1920
7, 8 four.7 750 × 1334
7, 8 5.5 1080 × 1920
X 5.eight 1125 × 2436
Se four 640 × 1136

For Android devices

Model Diagonal, inch Permission
Zenfone 2 Lazer ZE500KL 4.99 720 × 1280
Zenfone 4 A450CG 4.4 480 × 800
Desire 600 four.45 540 × 960
Desire C 3.52 320 × 480
Desire SV four.31 480 × 800
Desire v 4.1
Desire X 4.1
One four.eight 1080 × 1920
One 32GB four.6
One S , four.2 540 × 960
One SV four.2 480 × 800
One x, x four.eight 720 × 1280
Windows Phone 8s 480 × 800
Windows Phone 8x four.2 720 × 1280
Ascent G630 5.1 720 × 1280
Honor 5x 5.four 1080 × 1920
Honor 6, 7 1080 × 1920
Ideaphone P770 four.6 540 × 960
Ideaphone S720
K900 5.four 1080 × 1920
P70, S60 720 × 1280
Vibe Shot 5.2 1080 × 1920
G2 5.2 1080 × 1920
Nexus 4 four.eight 768 × 1280
Nexus 5 four.97 1080 × 1920
Optimus 4x HD four.71 720 × 1280
Optimus g four.71 768 × 1280
Otimus G Pro 5.51 1080 × 1920
Optimus L5 4.1 320 × 480
Optimus L5 II Dual 4.1 480 × 800
Optimus L7 II Dual four.four
Optimus L7 four.four
Optimus L9 four.6 540 × 960
Activ S four.75 720 × 1280
Galaxy A5 5.1 720 × 1280
Galaxy A5 2016 1080 × 1920
Galaxy Mega 6.3 6.four 720 × 1280
Galaxy Nexus four.7 720 × 1280
Galaxy Note 5.four 800 × 1280
Galaxy Note 2 5.6 720 × 1280
Galaxy S Duos 4.1 480 × 800
Galaxy S2, S2 four.four 480 × 800
Galaxy S3 four.7 720 × 1280
Galaxy S3 mini 4.1 480 × 800
Galaxy S4 5.1 1080 × 1920
Galaxy S4 mini 4,2 540 × 960
Galaxy S4 mini, s4 zoom 540 × 960
Galaxy S5 5.2 1080 × 1920
Galaxy S6 5.2 1440 × 2560
Galaxy Win four.6 480 × 800
Sony Xperia
Acro S four.35 720 × 1280
E Dual, GO 3.51 320 × 480
Ion four.56 720 × 1280
J 4.1 480 × 854
L four.35
Miro 3.6 320 × 480
P 4.1 540 × 960
S four.four 720 × 1280
Sola 3.75 480 × 854
SP four.62 720 × 1280
Tipo 3.21 320 × 480
TX four.57 720 × 1280
V four.33
Z, Z1 5.05 1080 × 1920
Z1 Compact four.33 720 × 1280
Z2 5.24 1080 × 1920
ZL 5.1
ZR LTE four.52 720 × 1280
Xiaomi Redmi
3, 3s 5 720 × 1280
4, 4a, 4x, 5a 5 720 × 1280
4 Pro 5 1080×1920
5 5.7 720×1440
6, 6a, 7a 5.45
5 5.99 1080×2160
6 Pro 5.84 1080 × 2280
7 6.3 720×1520
Go 5 720×1080
S2 5.99 720×1440
K20 Pro 6.39 1080 × 2340
Y3 6.25 720 × 1560
Xiaomi Redmi Note
2, 3, 4, 5A Prime 5.5 1080 × 1920
5 5.99 1080×2160
6 Pro 6.25 1080 × 2280
7, 7 Pro 6.3 1080 × 2340
eight 6.4
8 Pro 6.53
Xiaomi Mi
four 5 1080×1920
5, 5s, 6 5.15
6 5.7
5x 5.5
7 5.65 1080 × 2160
7 6
8, 8 Pro 6.2 1080 × 2248
8 Lite 6.25 1080 × 2280
9 T, Lite, Pro, T Pro, Explorer 6.39 1080×2340
Se 5.98
A1 5.5 1080 × 1920
A2, MIX 2 5.99 1080×2160
A2 Lite 5.84 1080 × 2280
A3, MIX 3 6.4 1080 × 2340
A3 Lite 6 720 × 1560
Play 5.85 1080 × 2280
Max 6.9 1080 x 2160

How to find out the screen resolution on the phone

It is impossible to change the value of resolution as on a computer, but you can change the density of pixels by a square inch (PPI).

The procedure will require: Root-right, Root Explorer file manager and text editor. The procedure is as follows:

  • Run the Root Explorer and in the System (Root section) Find the Prop file.
  • Open the document in the text editor and find the line RO.SF.LCD_Density.
  • Increase value by 10 and save changes.
  • Reload the smartphone.
  • Repeat steps and 4 until the image quality becomes acceptable.

Summing up, we can say that resolution is an important characteristic of the display. Comfort on the use of the device, the quality of the reproduced video and graphics in games depends on it.

Advantages and disadvantages of Amoled Screens

AMOLED displays have a matrix working with diodes emitting light. The principle of operation is very reminiscent of LCD screens.

The main difference between Amoled and IPS is that in the first displays of pixels they burn independently, without needing additional backlight. diodes have only 3 colors: red, green and blue. They are responsible for changing brightness, which is why a large number of rich colors appear. If the pixel does not light up with a certain shade, then black color appears on the screen. And if the pixel uses all 3 colors at the same time, then the gadget display becomes white.

Due to the fact that the pixels work independently of each other, the picture is not distorted when turning the smartphone to a certain angle. However, the autonomous work of pixels leads to the fact that the vision of the phone users with Amoled the display is sharply narrowed over time. The phenomenon is manifested after eye fatigue during prolonged work with the gadget.

Recently, smartphones with Super AMOLED technology appeared on the market. They are equipped with an air gap between the pixels, due to which, the brightness of color rendering increased several times. The phone is convenient to use in sunlight.

LCD Vs LED Vs OLED Vs Plasma Vs Quantum Dot TVs Explained!

Compared to the IPS matrix, AMOLED has significant advantages:

  • Lack of backlight. In the displays with AMOLED technology, the pixel is highlighted by its source, working regardless of others. Because of this, pictures have increased brightness and contrast. The level of contrast increases due to natural black, which is created due to extinguishing light from one pixel.
  • Fast response. This indicator seriously affects the question: “Which screen is better for the smartphone: IPS or AmOLED”. AMOLED response speed is much greater than a competitor. With the help of gadgets with this technology, you can view films with virtual reality glasses. A smooth picture will provide a complete immersion in the atmosphere. Also due to the high frequency of personnel, watching films becomes an order of magnitude more pleasant. Requiring applications work without delays and sinking.
  • The best displays for smartphones of 2020 consume little battery capacity when demonstrating black pictures. Since each pixel on the Amoled screen works regardless of others, the lighter it glows, the more the battery energy consumes. Black color is achieved by completely disconnecting the pixel, so it does not spend a battery charge. But with white pictures, the consumption increases more than that of IPS displays.
  • Thin display. There is no layer responsible for the dispersion of light emanating from the backlight in the amoled matrix. Therefore, the thickness of the matrix is ​​much smaller than that of Android smartphones equipped with an IPS matrix. The absence of a distribution layer helps to reduce the dimensions of the gadgets, without sacrificing the internal characteristics, as well as the capacity of the battery. The AMOLED structure allows you to create gadgets of any shape (not only with rounded edges, but also a flexible case). It is impossible to do this with an IPS matrix.

Despite a large number of advantages, these displays have significant disadvantages.

The production of such diodes is more complicated than red or green, and in quality they are clearly inferior to their “colleagues”.

  • The predominance of blue. When using a smartphone with an Amoled screen, notice the blue coloring of the picture when adjusting the brightness. This is due to the fact that blue pixels are perceived more than other colors. PWM adjustment helps to fix color rendering, but it greatly affects the fatigue of the eyes, which in the future leads to a decrease in sharpness of vision.
  • Lack of blue. The reason for burning blue is the problem in diodes. Their life is less than that of red and green. After burning out on the phone, color rendering occurs. The main display contains yellow shades, and white becomes like beige.
  • Residual pixels after burnout. Many functions in gadgets require complete lighting pixels. Therefore, after burnout, it is possible to preserve the residual image, which was shown with the full brightness of the smartphone. These silhouettes are stored in memory and are shown in all applications.
  • The structure of the Amoled screen. The display of this technology is equipped with a Pentile structure. It contains a different amount of pixels of all colors. For example, new Samsung models of blue diodes are 2 times less than other representatives. In the LG display, on the contrary, blue pixels prevail. This structure allows you to align the color balance on the user’s smartphone, losing the clarity and smoothness of the picture. Deterioration becomes noticeable in demanding games and virtual reality glasses.

Which display is better. IPS or amOLED

Manufacturers of smartphones more often promote models with Amoled screen, forgetting about the IPS matrix. Definitely say what type of display is better for a smartphone better. Each of them has its own pros and cons that compensate each other.

After studying the characteristics, the user must conclude for himself: which type of display is better for a smartphone.

If he needs a bright screen, and he is ready to spend the battery charge, then the technology of amoelele will suit him. If it is necessary to save the budget, it is recommended to purchase an IPS matrix, which also transfers color well, but has a weak level of contrast.


When the manufacturer decides to make a smartphone, its first choice would be the choice of processor. Your phone can have two cameras only if your processor supports their presence, it can have a screen with QHD resolution (2560 × 1440), only if it is supported by a processor. The fact that your device can or cannot do, mainly depends on which processor your manufacturer decided to install in it.

The main manufacturers of mobile processors are MediaTek and Qualcomm. While MediaTek is mainly focused on the budget segment and smartphones for the mass market, smartphones with Qualcomm processors can be found for each price segment. A good processor does not heat up even after prolonged use of the device and consumes very little battery charge. As a rule, Qualcomm copes with this better than MediaTek, and therefore it is believed that MediaTek is a little more expensive for the same price segment.

Processors are classified by clock frequency (1 GHz, 2 GHz, etc.D.), the number of nuclei (Octa-Core, Quad-Core) and manufacturing technologies (22 Nm, 14 Nm, 7 Nm). The higher, the better in the first two cases and the lower, the better in the last.

The clock frequencies should be understood as the number of operations that your processor can perform in a second, and the number of cores is the number of these processor nuclei in your smartphone. Production technology allows you to determine how small the size of the crystal is and how effective the chip is. The smaller the size of the crystal, the more transistors can be installed in the processor, the larger the number of transistors, the better.

Processors usually have numbers in their name, to designate a specific model, for example, SD (Snapdragon) 430, 625, 845 and T.D. The higher the number, the accordingly, the processor is more powerful.

The software in your device determines how you interact with it. The smartphone is not enough just the presence of a large number of functions, but their easily accessibility is also important, and the default parameters should work best. You probably also want to have a high optimization level to ensure the best balance between speed and the battery life time.

If you need any function or you often use a specific application, and it is not available on the platform on which your smartphone works, this can be a serious problem. Some of the best professional applications and games are available only in the IOS application store. Many state applications, especially in India, are intended only for Android. It mainly depends on which platform is the most preferable in a particular region.

From the point of view of performance and simplicity of iOS, Android is far ahead of the iOS. If you need a device that simply performs this task in one of the simplest ways, this is your choice. Teams and options on iOS are intuitive.

On the other hand, Android is known for its customizability. Here you can organize things the way you want, you can choose what a specific application icon should look like, what information will be displayed and where exactly. Even if two phones are running the same version of Android, they may have a completely different integration depending on how the manufacturer set up the OS.

Most manufacturers of Android smartphones prefer to add launcher over the operating system. For Samsung, this is Experience UI, ONEPLUS is preinstalled by Oxygen OS, Lenovo has a VIBE user integer, and Vivo has what is called Funtouch UI.

Some manufacturers prefer stock (naked) Android and do not add any superstructures. This ensures a quick update of the OS and the speed of the device as a whole.

Oxygen OS on OnePlus and Stock Android are the most optimal options in terms of system performance. If you need functions such as a picture of the screen with three fingers, the transition to soundless mode and unlocking with one touch, then this is definitely your choice. Xiaomi Miui and Samsung launcher can offer many opportunities, but they slightly reduce the performance of your device. Some user intenses are trying to emulate iOS or other popular shells, they may look attractive, but are extremely low.functional. Emui from Huawei and Funtouch Oppo. representatives of those, they look too colorful and can cause aesthetic rejection when using the device (IMHO).

You need to make sure that you are familiar with the Inteine, which is installed on the device you have chosen. Also, it will not be superfluous to clarify at what time your smartphone will receive the operating system updates. If your device works on outdated software, this may become a threat of device security. You will miss new functions, and sometimes even existing, at some point will stop working, forcing you to upgrade to the latest version of the OS.

iOS has the best track record for software updates. Most iPhone is supported for four years from the date of their release. The following are the phones from Google. T.n. Pixel, and smartphones on Android One (Nokia 7.1, Mi A2 and T.D.). Then the flagships of various leading manufacturers go, and only then all the rest.


As they say, the best weapon is what you have in your hands. The same applies to the camera. Smartphones have largely the main camera for most people. They will be with you in your special cases, moments that you would like to save forever, as well as capture your everyday world, then to post photos on social networks.

The days have passed when you could judge the camera by the number of megapixels. Currently, about 12 megapixels have the best flagship cameras on smartphones, and manufacturers are usually refrained from higher indicators.

It is also necessary to take into account the amount of light that falls into the camera lens, the more light, the better the image. One way to do this is to look at the size of the aperture or the value of the diaphragm, it is designated as F1.8, F1.6, F2.2 and t.D. The lower the value of the diaphragm, the better.

This is not only about the number of pixels, but also about their size. The larger the pixel size, the better. Many manufacturers do not mention this at all, but those who do this focus on this special attention.

It is known that the presence of two cameras adds a function such as portrait mode. It should be borne in mind that devices with a double camera are more expensive than their mono.chamber counterparts. In fact, the presence of a double chamber is not so useful. You will not use this as often as commercials and posters of smartphone manufacturers say this.

The effects of the portrait mode are easily reproduced by a software app. Even Instagram does this in focus mode.

Another newfangled option is the beauty. He tries to make your skin more smooth and without defects. In many cases, the effect is so intense that the resulting image looks like a drawn picture. It is better to stay away from such functions, since they do not bring much benefit (IMHO again).

Most smartphone cameras are good enough to take beautiful pictures in sufficient lighting, but their real quality can only be checked with low light. You can watch a video comparison of the cameras of your smartphones you are interested in to make a decision to buy. Functions such as HDR and HDR for the camera are quite useful. The number of different colors that can be captured by your device will increase significantly if it supports HDR.

In addition, most cameras in smartphones support autofocus, you can see how much time the camera is required to fix Focus and take a picture. It also depends on the processor of your phone. It is even better if the front camera also supports autofocus and a wide.angle lens for group selfie.

If you like to shoot a large number of videos on your smartphone, you should make sure that it has some image stabilization, at least software, and best of all. optical. Image stabilization eliminates the effect of trembling hands in the video, providing a stable cinematic effect. EIS (digital image stabilization) is a programmatic method of reducing hand trembling when shooting a video. In OIS (optical image stabilization), special hardware is used together with gyroscopes in order to maintain the position of the camera at a certain level and ensure high.quality shot material.

The sizes of the screens

Tablets and smartphones are equipped with screens with different ratios of the sides and different pixel density, however, these parameters are rarely indicated in the technical characteristics.

Let’s try to deal with all the tricks associated with these parameters. Let’s start with tablets. Here is the ratio of screens used in most modern tablets.

Pay attention to how much the screen is 8 “with a ratio of sides of 4: 3 visually larger than a wide screen 7”. And a wide screen 10.1 “A centimeter less screen 9.7 “In height.

I put on the table the parameters of screens most often used in tablets.

The text on the screens with a low PPI (number of dots per inch) is not read. I would not buy a tablet with a screen having a PPI below 150. Even the 164 PPI iPad mini screen seems to many. Screens with PPI more than 200 are perfectly perceived.

For me there was a big discovery that the screen 9.7 “1024×768 has even less PPI than the screen 7” 800×480.

Modern smartphones use screens with different ratios of the parties (3: 2, 5: 3, 16: 9), but they are all quite close. In the picture, I illustrated the ratio of screens with the same diagonal and different ratios of the parties.

As you can see from the table, screens with a low ppi very little. Of course, you should not buy a smartphone with a screen that has a pixel density below 170 ppi. But again, it is better that this figure be above 200.

The vast majority of screens have a square pixel, so the ratio of the sides of the screen can be calculated, knowing the number of points in width and in height. There are only two exceptions. “wrong” screens of tablets with rectangular pixels. 800×480 (there should have been 800×500) and 1024×600 (1024×640 would be correct).

I spent the evening to create these pictures and tables primarily for myself. I hope they will be useful to you.

OPPO A96 Unboxing

Screen resolution and pixel density (ppi)

The screen resolution is the number of luminous points (pixels) horizontally and vertical. For example, the IPhone 8 screen resolution is 750 x 1334 pixels:

Knowing this number, as well as knowing the physical size of the screen in inches, we can easily calculate the density of pixels or PPI (the number of pixels by one inch). To do this, divide the number of pixels horizontally by the width of the screen in inches: 750/2.3 (screen width. 2.3 inches). We get 326 ppi or 326 pixels per inch.

You can do even easier, because usually we know only the resolution of the screen and its diagonal in inches, and not the width and height. Therefore, to determine the PPI, you need a diagonal of the screen in pixels to divide into a diagonal in inches. And to find out the diagonal in the pixels, just imagine such a triangle:

We know the lengths of the legs (this is a horizontal and vertical resolution), and we find the hypotenuse by the Pythagoras theorem (the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs). For our iPhone 8 diagonal 2 = 750 2 1334 2. Hence the diagonal = 1530 pixels. Now we divide this number by the diagonal of the screen in inches (4.7) and get 326 ppi.

If we took a thin strip of 1 pixel thick and 1 inch long (2.54 cm), then this strip would consist of exactly 326 luminous points. This is ppi.

It follows that the size of one point (one pixel) is approximately 0.078 mm or 78 μm (25.4 mm divide by 326 points). Can we notice separate points on such a screen? Is our eyes capable of distinguishing pixels in size of about 0.08 mm?

As you already understand, the question is not quite correct. After all, the angular resolution of the eye takes into account the distance to the subject. If we take normal vision (1 angular minute), then from a distance of 50 cm of the eye it is able to distinguish a point with a diameter of 145 microns (0.145 mm), which is almost twice the size of the pixel iPhone.

Even if you take a person with very good vision (0.8 angular minutes), then his eyes can distinguish at such a distance a point of 116 microns (0.116 mm) that again there is much more point on the iPhone screen (78 microns).

However, many people look at the screen from a distance of 20-25 cm (for example, when we read a book on a smartphone). And here everything becomes much more interesting.

Famous 300 PPI

At the presentation of the first smartphone with a high-clay screen, Steve Jobs literally said that 300 dots per inch (300 ppi) are the limit of a person’s retina, if you look at the screen from a distance of 25-30 cm.

Let’s check this statement. By the way, if someone is interested in how exactly I determine the angular dimensions, then in a nutshell I will explain. First, you need to calculate the tangence of the desired angle on the calculator, and then multiply it by the distance to the object.

If we take average vision, then this is 1 angular minute or 1/60 ° (0.0166). We look at the calculator, what is TG (0.0166). It will be 2.910.four. Now we multiply this number by 30 cm and get 0.0087 cm or 0.087 mm, or 87 μm.

Indeed, a person with ordinary vision from a distance of 30 cm will also not be able to distinguish individual points on the screen with a pixel density of 326 ppi, where each point has a size of 78 μm.

But already with 25 cm of the eye of an average person, it distinguishes 72 microns. And if you take good vision (0.8 angular minutes), then such a person is capable of 25 cm to see individual points with a size of 58 microns, which is much smaller than iPhone points.

Talk about perfect vision (0.47 angular minutes) and completely inappropriate. Such a “reference eye” is theoretically capable of distinguishing a point of 34 microns from a distance of 25 cm! Naturally, for the owner of such an eye, the pixelization of the Retina screen will be terrifying.

We calculate the best resolution

So, we were convinced that from a distance of 25 cm even the most ordinary eye with a resolution of 1 angular minute is able to distinguish pixels on the screen with a density of 326 ppi. And a person with good vision (0.8 ′). and even more so!

But here it is important not only the very fact of whether you will notice consciously separate pixels or not. I remember very well with what pleasure at the beginning of the zero I read books on my IPAQ 1940 PDA. The clarity of his screen with a resolution of 240 at 320 points seemed exceptional to me, although objectively the size of these points was simply huge.

And only switching to new devices with better screens, I realized how bad the screens of the previous gadgets were bad and fuzzy.

Of course, you cannot compare the old 240p screens with new displays of even budget apparatuses. But when you move from the same iPhone 8 (with a 326 ppi screen) to a device with a 400 ppi screen, you may well feel the difference in the clarity of the image (for example, when reading the text), without even paying attention to individual pixels.

If we take the upper boundary, beyond which it makes no sense to increase the number of dots per inch (PPI), then we can make such a table (in the first column the distance from which we look at the screen is indicated):

If we say that the density of the IPS screen pixels is 326 ppi, this means that 1 inch contains 326 blue, 326 green and 326 red subpixels.

But when it comes to amoled screens, the situation here is very different, since in almost any amoled screen the number of red and blue subpixels is 2 times less than the number of green subpixels:

Therefore, when you see that the iPhone 12 Pro screen has a 458 ppi pixel density, do not flatter yourself. This means that there are 1 inch 458 green subpixels in this screen. But when we calculate the number of red or blue subpixels, they will be noticeably less. 324 ppi.

I repeat, this applies to almost any amoled screen. And for this reason the above table will look somewhat different for amoled screens. Since sometimes at the contrasting boundaries of the image, a person even with ordinary vision (1 ′) can notice from 25 centimeters to notice the uneven fonts on the amoled screen with a pixel density of 450 ppi.

As for TVs, the same principle works here. When choosing the optimal resolution, you need to take into account the physical size of the screen and the distance from which you will look at it.

Instead of conclusions

Once again I want to emphasize the main idea that I tried to convey in this article. You can choose any screen by ignoring its resolution.

Many people will prefer autonomy a small difference in clarity. Someone is indifferent to someone at all whether the pixels are visible if you peer very much and look for the shortcomings.

This article answers only one specific question. does it make sense to increase the screen resolution and to what limits you can increase the density of pixels, noticing (if desired) the difference in the clarity of the picture.

As we figured out, in order for the eye to confuse the image on the screen with reality, we need a fairly high density of pixels, which is not yet found everywhere even on flagship smartphones.

Of course, detailing is only part of the overall picture, but for many it is important. And 300 ppi is far from the limit of human vision.

Alexey, chapters. editor Deep-Review

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Screens of the future

As we see, the transition of smartphones towards 4K, large TV screens and computer monitors move to 8K (7680 × 4320). New technology for smartphone screens. Meanwhile, Micro-LED can become.


Micro-LOD or micro-lightDIDS. This is a new technology that is still in its infancy, but it has a great potential for the displays market. Micro-free screens work similarly to OLED panels, but they are even thinner. They consist of inorganic semiconductors, in particular, nitrite gallium compounds. Like OLED, these are also LEDs, but much smaller.

Highlighting for micro-lighteds is not needed, also does not require a polarization filter. The glass layer above the panel can be made even thinner. Micro-LOD brightness levels on watts are higher than that of OLED panels, and significantly exceeds LCD. With the same brightness, the micro-light display consumes half the energy than the OLED screen. Extremely small diodes also allow higher resolutions-for example, Smart hours with a 4K screen resolution would be quite possible if Micro-LED technology is used. And the last, but no less important: micro-light screens are not as exposed to pixel burnout as OLED displays.

The main disadvantage of this technology is currently its cost. Micro-LOD production is quite complicated, there are very few production lines for this, and the level of marriage is still high. All this increases expenses. However, many of these problems can be solved with the help of mass production, when it can become such.

Which screen is better?

As you can see, the difference in manufacturers also gave rise to the difference in terminology, although, recently these faces have been erased. AMOLED screens are no longer always Samsung, and Retina is not always used by Apple. LCD displays for iPhone are currently produced by LG, while Samsung releases screens for iPad.

In general, when comparing screens, it is necessary to take into account not only the numbers and manufacturing technologies, which we talked about above. Choosing a smartphone with the best screen, you need to see it in real life to understand whether it is too cold or warm is its color reproduction, whether you like its richness, brightness or contrast, what are its viewing angles, and so on.

Finally, you should take into account your habits: if you spend at work, in the room, all day and relax in the evening, then the advantages of LCD screens that are visible during daylight are probably not so important for you. If you are a lover of outdoor activities and lead a dynamic lifestyle, then on the contrary, LCD screens. that’s what you need.

If you are forced to save batteries or are simply obsessed with stunning colors and contrasts, look at Amoled display. In a word, the choice is yours.