4K what is it?

Everyone will welcome! How’s your mood? I hope it’s good because today we are going to talk about something terribly cool, namely in 4K, what does that mean? And I will put it in simple language, okay, I hope I don’t mind?

Are you watchings on YouTube? Probably look, here you can choose the quality. For example, UAH 144, this is generally Hellish quality, well, there is a bad one, the first smartphones, for example Nokia 6600, were filmed in this quality (the phone is just a legend). The next quality is 240, it is also not very good, like 360, this is all nonsense. The quality of 480 is the very minimum that, in princIPle, you can still watch something. 720 is already better, but it’s still a household level. 1080 quality is already the first stage of detail. That is, this is already the norm!

Look, I went to YouTube, where I killed in search of 4K. And there was a about nature, I chose it, now look, click here:

Then click here:

Well, here you are, just look at the choice of quality:

As you can see, there is a choice from 144 to 2160. By the way, you see, where there is 2160, it says 4K, this is it! That is, 4K is SCARY high quality. That is, everything will be visible, everything is very detailed and all that. The quality is super, what else can I say

And then you say, okay, but if you dive into the details, then what is 4K? It. The resolution is approximately 4000 horizontal pixels. There is also 2K, well, you probably already understand that it is about 2 times worse, although it is difficult to determine by eye, the picture is still of high quality and juicy! I found a picture here, the standard digital cinema is written here:

Guys, I’m shocked. There is also 8K. This is probably just incredible quality. Can you imagine? It is 2 times better than 4K, how is it in general? The eyes will cry for quality!

You will probably think, well, nishtyak, I will download movies in 4K quality! But not everything is so simple, my dears. Firstly, 4K quality weighs correspondingly, that is, much more than the everyday 720 or 1080, and secondly, in order to play 4K, you need a productive computer. Here, most likely, the emphasis goes to the card or to the processor, I don’t know for sure. But here I have above 1080 NOT every norms play, a little jerk. I think that all the same you need to have a powerful vidyuhu so that she pulls this business. Although I watched the on YouTube, it played 1440 for me and there were NO glitches, which pleases. But 2160 (4K) is already connecting.

Here’s another picture to better understand what 4K is:

So, two main questions:

  • How many megapixels is 4K? Well, actually, from the mathematical point of view, it’s 8 megapixels. But if you have more, it doesn’t mean that the camera can shoot 4K. The fact is that extra megapixels sometimes go to image stabilization, so to speak. But on the other hand, if the camera is less than 8 megapixels, then it cannot shoot 4K.
  • How many pixels are 4K? As I already wrote, this is about 4000 pixels horizontally, maybe a little less, maybe a little more. By the way, guys, you shouldn’t really look at the megapixels in the device, because it may be easy for a 12 megapixel camera to shoot worse than an 8 megapixel camera, this is just advice for the future.

On this all friends, like everything said, I hope there are questions, good luck and smiles

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Supported HDMI functions of all versions

Now let’s talk about HDMI functions supported in different versions.
In version 1.4, all the most popular (3D, ARC, CEC) is already available, and what is introduced since version 2.0 looks rather redundant for most users. Judge for yourself: HDMI 2.0 features Full HD 3D at 120 fps, 4: 2: 0 color subsampling, 25 fps 3D formats, and HE-AAC and DRA audio standards.

But in fact: 3D is no longer of interest to anyone (this year Samsung and LG have curtailed the production of 3D panels, other manufacturers will soon follow). 4: 2: 0, DRA “What is this?”. 95% of buyers will ask, but what really matters is only 4K support at 60 frames per second (FPS).

Functions HDMI version
1.0 1.1 1.2-1.2a 1.3-1.3a 1.4-1.4b 2.0-2.0b 2.1
Full HD Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Consumer Electronic Control (CEC) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
DVD-Audio Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Super Audio CD (DSD) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Auto lIP-sync Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dolby TrueHD / DTS-HD Master Audio Yes Yes Yes Yes
Updated list of CEC commands Yes Yes Yes Yes
3D Yes Yes Yes
Ethernet channel (100 Mbit / s) Yes Yes Yes
Audio Return Channel (ARC) Yes Yes Yes
4 audio streams Yes Yes
2 streams (Dual View) Yes Yes
Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) HDR OETF Yes Yes
Static HDR (Static HDR Metadata) Yes Yes
Dynamic HDR (Dynamic HDR Metadata) Yes
Enhanced Audio Return Channel (eARC) Yes
Variable refresh rate (VRR game mode) Yes
Stream Compression (DSC) technology Yes

Support HDMI maximum frequencies and resolutions

Now this is more interesting! And it is more interesting later that the lion’s share of consumers wants to know not data on TMDS or color depth, but “whether the new card will handle 4K”, or “is it possible to watch Full HD channels on this TV”, etc.

Format HDMI version / maximum bit rate
Resolution Refresh rate (Hz) Baud rate 1.0-1.1 1.2-1.2a 1.3-1.4b 2.0-2.0b 2.1
3.96 Gbit / s 3.96 Gbit / s 8.16 Gbit / s 14.4 Gbit / s 42.6 Gbit / s
HD Ready
1280 × 720
24 576 Mbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
thirty 720 Mbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 1.45 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 2.99 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes
Full HD (1080p)
1920 × 1080
24 1.26 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
thirty 1.58 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 3.20 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 6.59 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes
144 8.00 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes
240 14.00 Gbit / s Yes Yes
2560 × 1440
thirty 2.78 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 5.63 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes
75 7.09 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes
120 11.59 Gbit / s Yes Yes
144 14.08 Gbit / s Yes Yes
240 24.62 Gbit / s Yes
3840 × 2160
thirty 6.18 Gbit / s Yes Yes Yes
60 12.54 Gbit / s Yes Yes
75 15.79 Gbit / s Yes
120 25.82 Gbit / s Yes
144 31.35 Gbit / s Yes
240 54.84 Gbit / s Yes
5120 × 2880
thirty 10.94 Gbit / s Yes Yes
60 22.18 Gbit / s Yes
120 45.66 Gbit / s Yes
7680 × 4320
thirty 24.48 Gbit / s Yes
60 49.65 Gbit / s Yes
120 102.2 Gbit / s Yes

As you can see, almost the full potential of Full HD, which is quite enough for a simple TV viewer, was revealed back in HDMI 1.3-1.4. It is with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 that HD TV channels are broadcast.

4K content is quite possible to watch (or play) already on equIPment with support for HDMI 1.4, however, only at a frequency of 30 Hz. But a huge number of people do not even know about some kind of Hertz HDMI 2.0 and higher gives a huge increase in resolution, and in bandwidth, and in frames. But is it necessary right now? To whom and for what?

Main characteristics of HDMI different versions

Let’s turn to the main characteristics of different HDMI versions, and most importantly, find out what is the difference between HDMI 1.4 and 2.0 (the most current versions). Note the almost fivefold increase in throughput of the latest version compared to version 1.4.

HDMI Version
1.0-1.2a 1.3-1.3a 1.4-1.4b 2.0-2.0b 2.1
signal specifications
Bandwidth 4.95 Gbit / s 10.2 Gbit / s 10.2 Gbit / s 18.0 Gbit / s 48.0 Gbit / s
Maximum baud rate 3.96 Gbit / s 8.16 Gbit / s 8.16 Gbit / s 14.4 Gbit / s 42.6 Gbit / s
TMDS 165 MHz 340 MHz 340 MHz 600 MHz 1200 MHz
Number of TMDS channels 3 3 3 3 4
coding scheme 8b / 10b 8b / 10b 8b / 10b 8b / 10b 16b / 18b
Compression (optional) DSC 1.2
Color format support
YCBCR 4: 4: 4 Yes
YCBCR 4: 2: 2 Yes
YCBCR 4: 2: 0 Yes Yes
Color depth
8 bpc (24 bit / px) Yes
10 bpc (30 bit / px) Yes
12 bpc (36 bit / px) Yes
16 bpc (48 bit / px) Yes Yes Yes Yes
Color space
SMPTE 170M Yes
ITU-R BT.601 Yes
ITU-R BT.709 Yes
sRGB Yes Yes Yes Yes
xvYCC Yes Yes Yes Yes
sYCC601 Yes Yes Yes
AdobeYCC601 Yes Yes Yes
Adobe RGB (1998) Yes Yes Yes
ITU-R BT.2020 Yes Yes
audio characteristics
Sample rate per channel (max) 192 kHz
Sound frequency (max) ? ? 768 kHz 1536 kHz 1536 kHz
sample size 16-24 bits 16-24 bits 16-24 bits 16-24 bits 16-24 bits
Number of audio channels (max) 8 8 8 32 32

This data from the Official HDMI Specification says little to the average user. Much more often people are interested in what resolution and frame rate the standard supports, because it is this data that is widely advertised by manufacturers of TVs, monitors, computer hardware and other equIPment, and is also indicated in the characteristics of games and files.

Difference HDMI 1.4 from HDMI 2.0 (a / b), HDMI 2.1

For over a decade, HDMI has been the most widely used high definition signal transmission standard. Almost all market particIPants made a choice in his favor, thanks to the availability, support of all modern technologies and constant development. HDMI adapter developers are constantly improving their brainchild, providing manufacturers and users with the best that the AV industry has achieved. HDMI switching is updated more often than other AV-signal transmission standards, and sometimes this creates certain difficulties for ordinary users. Here are the versions to the version, trying not just to keep up with the times, but to set the development vector, the developers add all new “features” to the standard.

When this is something revolutionary, the new version is assigned an ascending number (1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2, 2.1), and when it comes to expanding existing functionality, a letter value is added to this number (1.2a, 1.3a, 1.4b, 2.0a, etc.). Today I would like to tell you what is the difference between HDMI 1.4 and HDMI 2.0, HDMI 2.0a (b) and the second versions, and not related to 4K resolution.

HDMI port protection

What is really important is the protection of HDMI ports from burnout. Here, to our great regret, no new version of the standard will save HDMI ports as they burned from “hot plugging”, ie. Connections without de-energizing, and burn. Manufacturers, although they are trying to somehow alleviate the situation, add additional protection to the circuits of their devices, this does not always help. This happens because there are sufficiently high (about 100 Volts) static potentials on the device cases.

Protection of HDMI interfaces Dr.HD HDMI Protector

At the moment of connecting the devices, THESE potentials are equalized (discharge), as a result of which the equIPment is damaged. This problem has been known from the very beginning of the HDMI interface. All this is a consequence of the general cheapness of the components. Such is the circuitry It doesn’t matter who the manufacturer of your TV or card is. The problem lies in the interface itself.

HDMI Port Protection DL-SP

Such passive elements (in other words, fuses) protect equIPment with HDMI interfaces from electrostatic discharges, potential differences when connecting equIPment “hot”, as well as lightning pickups. They are active on all TMDS channels and will act as the ultimate ESD protection. If suddenly the discharge goes through the cable, the defender will take the whole blow on himself.

Current HDMI versions

Today the current version is HDMI 2.0 (a / b), which was officially announced on September 4, 2013. EquIPment with its support began to appear on sale in 2014, and now this interface is already available on board many devices.

But this does NOT mean at all that devices with support for earlier versions should be thrown away. Not at all! As you will see from the tables below, the average user for watching satellite / cable / terrestrial HD TV channels and movies, and for laptops and home computers, HDMI 1.2-1.4 will be enough.

Although, of course, the specification of version 2.0 contains more “goodies” with an eye on 5-7 years ahead. But running ahead of the locomotive and trying now to look for a TV with HDMI 2.1 “on board” is absolutely not worth it. It has simply not been produced yet, because it was presented only at the beginning of January 2017. So, let’s get down to a detailed study of the specifications of the various HDMI versions

So, I hope we managed to clarify the issue Not only the differences between HDMI 1.4 and HDMI 2.0 (a / b), but also other versions of the HDMI standard. Now you know that there is no point in trying to set 4K resolution on your brand new card if you have an old monitor, and you can watch satellite HD channels in excellent quality on a TV with the very first version of HDMI.
Author: Andrey Shchukin.

Panasonic TX-50AX802

Besides the natural ability to reproduce the latest picture quality, this model has an interesting function that rewinds live broadcast programs. It’s called Freetime. Connecting to the Internet allows you to create an owner profile right on the TV screen, which will help him share with friends. So, in addition to watching programs in the highest quality, now you can spend time even more interesting.

“Samsung UE65HU8500

This model appeared around the same time as the above. The price of Samsung 4K UHD TVs does not differ much from its competitors. About three hundred thousand rubles. But this particular model looks very stylish. It can fit into any interior and will be its decoration. The main difference is, of course, the curved screen. This is an innovation that makes you freeze with delight. The immersion in the picture becomes even more realistic. The effect of complete presence is created. This TV immediately attracts attention. HDMI 2.0 port is also present, which is an important plus.

4K adaptation

The channels themselves are not yet broadcast in “Ultra-HD”, but thanks to the possibility of adaptation, you can purchase a screen with such an extension and enjoy a clear picture. Almost all 4K UHD TVs combine adaptation function. What does this give the common viewer? Nothing more than the opportunity to see the smallest details even in long-loved programs.

New image format opens up new possibilities.

LG 55UB950V

The design of the TVs of this brand is always impressive.

Sony KD-65X9005B

This model is one of the most purchased. However, the cost of the current course for the residents of Russia will not seem affordable to everyone. About two hundred thousand rubles. To enjoy all the delights of the latest technology, it is well worth paying. This TV is already equIPped with an HDMI 2.0 port and the already familiar HEVC.

“Nice 58L9363

This model can be called the most affordable 4K TVs. It was with its appearance that other manufacturers were forced to revise downward. This TV doesn’t have many features, but the second generation allows you to watch new 3D.

What are the benefits of the Ultra HD extension??

The huge screen shows with incredible clarity, SEPARATE pixels on it cannot be seen as on 720p analogs. This is an indisputable plus. The same as the realism of what is happening on the screen: you can feel like a part of the movie scene. Saturation of colors and transitions from shade to shade allow you to see the whole variety of natural and artificial colors.

Even if the film or program is broadcast in the wrong format, a special feature will allow you to adapt the image exactly in 4K. Receivers EquIPped with many additional functions. TVs with this resolution can be installed, for example, voice or gesture control, the ability to Synchronize them with other devices, such as a personal smartphone.

4K extension

The 4K format appeared quite recently, in 2005. It is not easy for the human eye to see the difference in the latest resolution and the already familiar 1080. It is especially difficult to see the difference if the 1080 resolution shows, for example, Blu-ray.

Disadvantages of the newest resolution

And now a little about the cons, which are still present during the operation of such new items as 4K UHD TVs. What could it be?

Broad distribution of content. In our country, few channels have switched to HD, and Ultra HD is not available to everyone, and you will have to pay for it separately. It is included only in paid channel packages, and their choice is small. The price category is high. And although operators have been working on this issue recently, the service is not available for most consumers.

A more complete experience of the new broadcast can be obtained if the devices connected to the TV are passed through a cable that is not currently widespread HDMI 1.4, but already improved 2.0.

What does 4K mean

But, just like in the case of 3D, there is still nothing to watch in natural ultra-high resolution on the screens of such TVs. There is also 4K content available to viewers and the means to deliver it to TV screens. Nevertheless, if you listen to the manufacturers, the higher resolution will soon be in demand. So what is 4K in the end and how does the new resolution differ from the existing Full HD?

Digital TV resolutions in examples

Today, more and more often you can hear the appearance of TVs and projectors with support for 4K resolution, which is intended to replace Full HD (1920 x 1080 pixels) resolution in films and, possibly, TV program in the future.

The 4K standard generally refers to a resolution of about 4000 pixels wide and about 2000 pixels high. Which makes it the area equivalent of four Full HD screens. Although nowadays 4K is also used as a catch-all term for a number of standards, which are quite close to this resolution. TVs labeled 4K will be on sale this year, when in fact they support Quad HD. But frankly, 4K is the more attractive-sounding notation.

Meanwhile, we have been able to watch Blu-ray movies and high definition (HD) TV programs for a decade now. There are three varieties of high definition. Full HD or 1080p (progressive scan) and 1080i (interlaced), as well as 720p (also known as HD Ready). So far, most television programs and all DVDs are encoded in standard definition (SD) 720 x 480 pixels. SD is the oldest resolution and is still widely used for many TV programs and reports.

Click on the picture to enlarge it

Comparison of four resolutions: standard (SD), high definition (Full HD), Quad HD and 4K / 2K.

Fundamentals of digital cinema

The origins of 4K are in the movie theater industry. When George Lucas was about to make his promised backstory to Star Wars in the late 1990s, he experimented with new digital formats to replace film. Film films are incredibly expensive to manufacture, transport and store. If cinemas could simply download digital files and display it through a digital projector, they could save a lot of money. Now that movie theaters are under severe pressure from cable and streaming providers. Cutting costs helps them stay competitive.

After filming The Phantom Menace, partly in HD, George Lucas filmed Attack of the Clones entirely in 1080p digital. It was a great Blu-ray release for the future, but it was soon discovered that 1080p was not high enough resolution for giant movie theater screens. If you are sitting in the front rows of a movie theater in front of a screen displaying a 1080p movie, you may see a softened image or a grid of pixel structure, which can be very noticeable.

The film industry needs a standard that assumes that you can sit half the height of the screen, and that requires a higher resolution than 1080p. In 2002, the Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) was formed to create a new digital standard. Largely due to the activities of this organization, two new high-definition specifications appeared, first the 2K format, and then 4K in 2005.

The first notable 4K movie was Blade Runner: Final Cut 2007, a new version filmed in 1982 as a movie masterpiece. Unfortunately, at that time very few cinemas were able to show it in full resolution.

Standard 4K

Despite good intentions, there is no single 4K standard among manufacturers yet. Today, there are five or more standards for shooting that differ in resolution. In cinemas you see projectors based on the DCI specification that support 4K and 2K, while Sony is pushing its own standard (also 4096 x 2190) and a series of cinema projectors.

Everything is a little GoPro else in home theater. HDMI recently added two 4K support options to its latest HDMI 1.4 specification: Quad HD (3840 x 2160 pixels) and 4K / 2K (4096 x 2160 pixels). Only Quad HD matches the classic 16: 9 aspect ratio of modern TV screens.

Meanwhile, some experts are questioning the need for 4K in home theater, given the lack of content, and the need for very large displays to really appreciate the increased resolution.

A huge and noticeable leap was at one time the transition from standard definition (SD) to high definition (HD), but the difference between 1080p and 4K is no longer so noticeable, many experts say. The resolution increased to 4K may only provide some benefits for screens larger than 55 inches.

If you’ve watched the James Cameron movie Avatar in 3D, then you’ve seen 4K in action. One of Cameron’s highest-grossing films has been helped to see 4K projectors around the world. Other film studios, following this example, have already released many 3D films, mostly previously shot digitally and artificially converted to 3D, the expansion of 3D cinemas has continued worldwide.

However, this progress did not lead to the successful and widespread adoption of home 3D TVs, despite all the efforts of manufacturers and a powerful advertising campaign.

Given the mediocre returns in response to their efforts to introduce 3D, mainly due to the expensive and inconvenient active glasses, manufacturers began to look for alternatives. And 4K resolution allows you to improve the quality of 3D images with passive glasses or get rid of them altogether.

Present and future of home 4K

4K TVs will be big and expensive over the next few years.

LG and Toshiba are starting to sell their 4K TVs in the absence of 4K content, which minimizes their advantage while still improving passive 3D quality. The insufficient resolution of LG’s passive 3D system could, in theory, be compensated for by doubling the horizontal and vertical pixels in passive 4K displays such as the LG 84LM9600 to PROVIDE 1080p for every eye.

Click on the picture to enlarge it

4K Toshiba TV

Toshiba’s first 4K TVs are already on sale in Japan. a 55-inch Toshiba LCD, also called an autostereoscopic or glasses-free 3D TV. It complies with the Quad HD specification (3840 x 2160 pixels), which is four times the size of Full HD.

There are no second 4K TVs on sale yet. Sony last year introduced its 4K home theater projector, the VPL-VW1000ES. Meanwhile, JVC already sells four high-end projectors capable of upscaling 1080p content to 4K, but they are currently unable to display native 4K content on screen.

In the absence of 4K content, players and displays will have to Scale materials from HD or even SD resolution. To this end, Sony has developed and started selling the new BDP-S790 Blu-ray player, which is capable of 4K upscaling in real time.

4K resolution can be expected to be officially added to Blu-ray specification soon.

Can higher resolution 4K make movies better? It can be argued that this depends on the original format of the film. For example, if movies were shot with cameras in SD resolution, there is probably little benefit buying a 4K movie versus a DVD. Of course, depending on the quality of your system upscaling to 4K.

However, even with the exemplary quality of native 4K footage, a 4K TV or projector will NOT show the dramatic improvement seen when moving from standard definition to 1080p. You can only appreciate the benefits of 4K while sitting at home quite close to a large screen, as when watching in the front row of a city cinema.

But it is quite possible to be sure that manufacturers will gradually begin to introduce ultra-high definition already into the next generation TVs.

Source: http://asia.Cnet.com
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Creative thinking

In this task, two correct answers are hidden at once. The ability to find non-standard solutions is another essential competence of the 21st century. And, interestingly, children, due to their less life experience than an adult’s, come up with many more different options for solving non-standard problems. Masha Petrushkin constantly faces difficulties on her journey and comes up with how to get out of this or that situation. To settle for the night in a hollow, and instead of a blanket to hide in fir branches is a good manifestation of creative thinking.

What does 4K mean

A small child has no time to breathe. As soon as the mothers figured out where and to what circles-sections they take their children (usually this is preparation for school, sports or dancing; perhaps also English), the world went online, and psychologists sounded the alarm: this is not why we teach our children! In life and future career, it is NOT mathematics or writing that is important, but stress resistance, the ability to work in a team and other skills, the so-called soft skills.

Let’s figure out what it is and how to help our children master 4K. four necessary competencies of the 21st century.

  • Communication
  • Cognitive flexibility
  • Creative thinking
  • Critical thinking
What Does 4k Mean

It is not necessary to enroll children in special courses that develop these skills. Now is the time to open a book, for example, “Letter Shake” (by Yulia Danilova), and together with the heroine of the book, the brave Masha Petrushkina, go on a trIP across Russia, and at the same time watch how the girl masters those 4K.

As you know, the reader usually associates himself with the main character, and the more adventures or events the hero of the book has, the brighter the child will “live” the experiences of the hero.

I must say right away that the book contains many different tasks for the development of attention, memory, there are encryptions, coloring pages, and this contributes to the involvement of the little reader in the plot. After all, children love to save someone, and here they help Masha to look for scrolls with words that were lost from the book about the peoples of Russia.

So, 4K, which Masha Petrushkin mastered:


“Grandma smiled:

The child is constantly in contact with other people: in kindergarten, in circles, in the clinic, on the playground. A lot in his life depends on the quality of these contacts. So Masha from our book learns a lot about other peoples, their customs, crafts, in the styles of communication between adults and children. Following her, the little reader learns this.

Masha learns different skills: in the Chuvash family she helps the hostess to sculpt dumplings (Khurani dolls), in the Buryat she learns the traditional board game “Shagai naadan”, and in the Hansi peoples she studies Traditional embroidery.

As a result of successful communication (here it is, the first K in action!) Masha achieves her goal and finds all the scrolls with the words.

Cognitive flexibility

Cognitive flexibility is the ability of the brain to adapt our behavior to unexpected situations, to correct our behavior in accordance with them. Masha first tries to explain to the Kalmyk family that it is forbidden to leave a hole in the ceiling and start a fire in the house, but the hostess gently answers her:

“First, don’t shout, please. It is customary for us Kalmyks to speak softly. And secondly, everything is in order: there was no chandelier on the ceiling, but there was a hole. “.

Then Masha understands why the chimney is needed, how the wagon is arranged, and she becomes embarrassed. Therefore, when she is brewed traditional Kalmyk tea, instead of sugar and lemon, they put Baranov’s fat, pepper and bay leaf in yaky, she already accepts the situation, it even seems to her that the drink looks like grandma’s soup.

And further, Faced with an unusual way of life and new traditions for herself, the heroine of the book manifests precisely her, cognitive flexibility.

So, the second K is mastered.

Critical thinking

In my opinion, this fourth competence is the most important in the modern world. A huge amount of information is pouring in us. It is very important to teach a child from childhood to “separate the grain from the chaff”. After all, this is a way of thinking in which a person questions the incoming information. It aims at deciding who to trust and what to do.

– Why did you add oil to the fire? Masha was curious.

– For Vot-In. the spirit of the mistress of fire. We will feed her in the morning. answered the owner of the Yurt.

– Yes, fire cannot eat, it is not a man.

– Everything around is alive and there is spirit in everything.

– And the water has a spirit?

– And in the stone? And by the tree?

– Well yes. All Khakass think so.

– I understand.

Masha wanted so much to ask if there was a spirit of a bicycle and ice cream, but She did not dare”.

Critical thinking means not taking on faith everything that is said to you, even if it is said by an authoritative adult.

This is how, using the example of your own book and the emotions experienced in the classroom with children, it is easiest to figure out how to gradually master such important skills with a child. Often in life they are really more needed than encyclopedic knowledge. There are many resources you can use to build THESE skills. At the Mayak School of Development we usually integrate such tasks into our classes both in offline and online courses.

Better yet, GoPro to train soft skills and yourself at the same time with the child.

On a walk or on the way to school / kindergarten, you can ask questions such as:

What are the requirements for hardware that supports HDR

1.UHD (4K) screen with a color depth of at least 10 bits, currently only OLED screens and SUHD quantum dot screens have this color depth.
2. Availability of HDMI 2.0a ports.

In screens on IPS or VA matrices, it is also possible to show this. Provided that the TV will be capable of supporting HDR. And any TV with a 2.0 port can support this. Indeed, in order to upgrade to this port, there is a need to replace hardware, since the upgrade is carried out at the software level.

What is HDR

2016 was marked by the emergence of such an innovation in TVs as support for HDR (High Dynamic Range), which has an extended range of color depths and shades. Devices with HDR support will have a special mark to indicate support for this technology.

The main technical requirements for a technique that supports HDR are as follows:
HDR10 Media Profile support that adheres to the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Institute (Rec. 2020)
support for the SMPTE ST 2084 color GoPro file with a color depth of ten baht.

The guidelines outline the fundamental requirements of REC 2020 for frame rate and screen resolution. Devices required Must support UHD (4K) resolution and frame rates 23.976p, 24p, 25p, 29.97p, 30p, 50p, 59.94p, 60p, 100p, 119.88p, 120p.

SMPTE ST 2084. A Dolby standard and endorsed by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. It specifies what processing should be done. So that it becomes possible to transmit it in a high dynamic range, the brightness of which was at a level of 10,000 cd / m2 (standards for coding and processing).

With a color depth equal to ten bits, the transmission of colors is 210 degrees, which means that one color has 1024 shades. Taking into account the fact that the transmission of three colors is practiced in television, it is possible to calculate the total number of shades that can be transmitted and reproduced. 1024 x 1024 x 1024 = 1073741824 color shades.

Where can I find HDR content

This can be done from a device that allows GoPro to read in this format. Such a device can be a computer or a Blu Ray player, for transmission from which an HDMI connection is used. In addition, content can be taken directly from the Internet by a playback device such as a TV or projector.

How did HDR come about? Many companies have been puzzled by the question of how to carry out the transmission of a signal containing a large amount to the consumer. Given that the presence of current standards excluded the possibility of increasing the dynamic range. In addition, there were no screens capable of fully displaying the beauty of such an image. It was then that engineers at Sony, Dolby and PhilIPs began to closely search for a solution to this issue. Other companies have tried to do this by developing SEPARATE standards, but this approach did NOT contribute to the mass adoption of this technology.

Full development of HDR is possible only if it is supported by manufacturers. And if they shoot in sufficient quantities with the support of this format, then there will always be consumer electronics manufacturers ready to produce equIPment capable of demonstrating this format.

The leading companies created the UHDA alliance, which included both manufacturers. So do electronics manufacturers.

UHDA includes: TP Vision Europe BV, Toshiba Lifestyle Products Services Corporation, Sky UK Ltd, Shenzhen TCL New Technology Co., Ltd., Sharp Corporation, Realtek Semiconductor Corp., Orange, NVIDIA, Novatek, Nanosys Inc., MStar Semiconductor, Inc., Koninklijke PhilIPs NV, Intel Corporation, HiSilicon Technologies, Hisense, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Dreamworks, DTS, Inc., ARRI, Amazon.com, Entertainment Inc., Universal Pictures Warner Bros., Twentieth Century Fox, The Walt Disney Studios, Sony Corporation Technicolor, Samsung Electronics Corporation, Panasonic Corporation, LG Electronics Netflix, Inc., Dolby Laboratories, Inc., The DIRECTV Group, Inc.

Considering the weight of the companies that have joined the alliance, it is safe to predict the accelerated pace of development of the HDR standard.