IP CAMERAS AS A NETWORK DEVICE
The main difference between an IP surveillance camera and an analog one is its placement on the network as a separate unique device with its own IP.
By connecting via Ethernet or Wi-Fi, the camera becomes available to any computer on the network, which means that the user of any of THESE PCs can:
- View the image formed by the camera;
- Configure IP Camera Settings.
If you restrict access to the camera, then these features will be available only to authorized users. However, network attacks remain relevant. This is what IP cameras pay for the ease of installation and scalability of the surveillance system.
When transferring data over a network, it is also important to consider the speed at which the image is broadcast. This parameter depends on the following factors:
The higher it is, the slower frames will be generated and sent over the network. Otherwise, the quality of the transmitted data suffers.
It can be MPEG-4, H.264, or another format, but as a rule, the listed options apply. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Details will be discussed later.
It can go up to ten or hundreds of megabits per second in the case of an Ethernet connection. If the IP camera is connected via Wi-Fi, then the data transfer rate is limited to 11 megabits.
Receiving hardware performance.
Whether it is an IP recorder, a server or a PC, the device must provide the necessary display quality and information storage capabilities.
Since viewing IP surveillance is possible Not only through the local network, but also through the Internet, the image transmission speed will depend on the route of the transmitted information.
Coordination with servers, computers, IP recorder and other consumers consists in organizing support for the same network protocols and using the corresponding ports, as well as in using equIPment with comparable bandwidth.
For example, if an IP camera generates packets with an image faster than the server can perceive them, delays occur and the information loses its relevance. After you need to Pay attention to these points when choosing devices and setting them up.
NETWORK PROTOCOLS of IP cameras
The main network protocols by which IP cameras transmit or receive information:
Through RTSP protocol Supervision management is organized. It should be understood that the Protocol itself does not transmit data, nor does it perform image compression and does NOT define a transport protocol. Messages for this protocol are sent separately from the stream.
The advantage of working through RTSP is that you can always get a sound and image, but the use of the rest of its functions is not possible.
TCP. direct monitoring data transfer protocol. That is, the IP camera can transmit information via TCP, and at the same time receive control commands via RTSP or HTTP. The second protocol will control the camera, the first will control the flow.
When using TCP, you can be sure that there is no damage or loss of transmitted packets, but it works slower than its less reliable alternative UDP.
Unlike TCP UDP protocol DOES NOT monitor the movement of information and does NOT establish a preliminary connection. However, it transmits data faster due to the absence of the need to duplicate packets lost during transmission.
It is more logical to use it when surveillance data is transmitted with high intensity, and the loss of a pair of packets does not play a significant role. In problematic networks where the loss of some information is critical, it is better to use reliable TCP.
RTP protocol designed to transmit images in real time, or rather, it guarantees the transmission of data with a fixed delay, assign a timestamp to each packet. Thanks to this feature of the protocol, the receiver can collect and play data in the correct order.
RTP works over UDP and in practice is inseparable from RTCP, which controls the transmission of monitoring results. Due to the ability to synchronize the sending of data and adjust the delivery of packets with the RTP image, it is best suited as a transport GoPro protocol.
When designing and installing an IP surveillance system, specialists are faced with many problems of integrating its SEPARATE components. Often the equIPment is only compatible theoretically, but in practice there are a number of nuances, the solution of which inevitably takes hours of working time.
In this regard, it should be mentioned ONVIF standard.
With the help of the interfaces offered by ONVIF, it is possible to integrate devices from different manufacturers and do NOT care about the conditions prescribed in their license agreements.
Often, companies only allow their interfaces to be used with equIPment manufactured by this company. ONVIF includes more than four hundred organizations that use this protocol. This means that the equIPment of at least four hundred organizations will be compatible with each other.
When choosing the elements of the IP surveillance system, you can follow a simple tactic. see if there is any mention of ONVIF support in the descrIPtion. If so, this equIPment is highly likely to be compatible with other equIPment that supports this standard.
Otherwise, you should consider many possible problems when integrating IP cameras, recorders / servers and other elements.
Compression formats for IP cameras
Uncompressed image transmission is not profitable. it is time consuming and overloads the network. After that, various compression methods are applied, with insignificant loss in quality, giving a significant gain in speed.
The main formats used in IP cameras for image compression are:
MJPEG works frame by frame, fractionating it and then compressing the resulting image. Due to the simplicity of the aLGorithms, the use of this format does not require large computing power. Also, the loss of one frame will not affect the rest, which means that with this format, the use of the UDP protocol is quite justified.
However, this protocol has several disadvantages. Thus, a sequence of compressed frames takes up much more disk space than compressed streaming frames. This is due to the fact that compression aLGorithms take into account the static nature of the picture.
The MJPEG format will duplicate useless information over and over again, unnecessarily. Filling the hard disk. Due to its peculiarities, MJPEG is quite applicable in budget surveillance systems, where Frame-by-frame image display is required.
Otherwise, the network surveillance system should use IP cameras using other compression formats.
Popular among compression aLGorithms MPEG-4, based on ignoring redundant information and focused on use in low-bandwidth networks.
MPEG-4 working scheme:
- Highlighting keyframes.
- Formation of predictable personnel. This process is the difference between a keyframe and adjacent non-keyframes.
Despite a significant gain in the size of the final files and the transfer speed, the format is gradually losing ground in favor of a more efficient H.264. However, for many organizational security tasks, MPEG-4 compression is a sufficient and budget option compared to its highly efficient analog.
H.264 is the most “advanced” image compression format and currently the most demanded. With improved compression quality over MPEG-4, it cuts network bandwidth requirements in half.
Also, you can get a much better image quality with the same spent resources. The disadvantage of the format is that when compressing it uses complex aLGorithms, which means that to use it, you need to purchase equIPment with high performance.
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Camera position control
PTZ technology simplifies the process of monitoring large objects and is intelligently designed in IP equIPment. At the same time, analog systems require an additional cable, in the case of network models, all the same twisted pair is enough. Such cameras are quite common, including for home use.
Cloud technology applications
Using cloud services is a safe and convenient way to save all your footage. It should be remembered that the cloud can be personal, definitely GoPro, or connect to Separate services. The ability to connect to the cloud service contributes to the fact that the user can follow everything that happens at the facility online, so that he is always aware of everything that is happening.
The difference between an IP camera and analog
Observation systems have become part of human life. After all, now it is as simple as possible to install a surveillance camera, while the cost is in an affordable segment. But, sometimes users are faced with a choice problem. And here we are not talking about the choice of a dome, cylindrical or cube camera, but the choice of analog and IP surveillance. An ordinary person cannot fully understand how these two technologies differ. Let’s consider with you the main differences between an IP camera and analog surveillance, so that it is easier for you to make a choice.
Networked surveillance cameras, which are equIPped with a Wi-Fi module, are capable of filming without laying cables. This is especially true for those objects where drilling walls and laying cables is rather difficult and can be quite expensive for the user.
For example, the premises of historic buildings, paid premises, etc. IP-class cameras with 4G, 3G or Wi-Fi module will become real assistants. Also, such a solution will be useful in the country, where exactly the wireless technology is the only solution, together with which observation becomes real. Connecting analog surveillance systems requires up to three cables, each with its own function.
This is especially important to take into account if you are creating an extensive surveillance system at large objects with a territorial distribution. It is important that there is a high security of signal transmission, which is ensured by installing encryption aLGorithms, or by organizing the operation of the surveillance system and in secure networks. The level of protection for analog and digital models is similarly high and cannot be intercepted if everything is configured correctly, so you don’t have to worry about data safety.
Data transmission range
Analog cameras require a coaxial cable, while network cameras can be connected to an existing local network and use the same twisted pair cable. The level of throughput depends on the quality of the coaxial cable, and in digital models it is always at a high level. IP cameras have no loss in image transmission under conditions of long distance data transmission. Modern local area networks are built with the introduction of various additional devices. switches, routers and others, which allows you to maximize the range of work.
How IP cameras differ from analog surveillance?
Data transmission and power
Typically, analog systems use wires for power. a coaxial data cable and a separate cable for powering equIPment. For IP-class cameras, twisted pair cables are usually used for all purposes, which is facilitated by a special PoE technology.
This cable is used simultaneously for power supply and signal transmission, while the power is sufficient even to ensure the stable operation of additional equIPment, for example, it heats the casing. In analog surveillance, the power cable is all separate, it can be in a single braid with the coaxial cable, but this does NOT change anything. these are always two different cables.
The main advantage of IP cameras is the high resolution of shooting, for example, among the assortment you can find wide-angle cameras that shoot at a resolution of 4000×3000 pixels, and this is far from the maximum indicator that such technology can provide. At the same time, analog surveillance cameras can demonstrate the maximum resolution of 704×576 pixels, which is incredibly small in comparison. The difference is quite significant and noticeable even to the non-professional eye. As a standard, shooting is carried out in the following resolutions:
- 704х576 points is an analog surveillance camera;
- 1920х1080. 2-megapixel network camera;
- 2048×1536. 3 megapixel network camera;
- 3072×4048. 6-megapixel network camera.
Disadvantages of the format
- There is no direct remote access from the network to the camera.
- Risk of disappearance of technical support in the event of a manufacturer’s bankruptcy.
Advantages of IP systems
- High quality of transmitted images.
- Remote monitoring and control availability.
- Flexibility of settings.
- The ability to record in Cloudy information repositories.
Developed in 2014 by Techpoint.
This format, like the previous one, supports the simultaneous transmission of HD (High Definition) signal, control commands, and power supply over a standard coaxial cable. The standard is conventionally called open. The developer company produces both equIPment and chIPsets, allowing its microcircuits to be installed in surveillance systems of second brands. The license for the production of microcircuits is NOT for sale, and it was recently impossible to purchase chIPs of this data transfer format from another manufacturer.
In 2019/2020, the Chinese chIP manufacturer Hisilicon presented chIPs that support all three high-quality image transfer formats. There is public information on whether these are licensed microcircuits, or counterfeit. The developers did not protest.
Disadvantages of IP systems
- High price.
- Delay and interruption of the signal when the level of errors and interference increases.
- Dependence of system performance on the quality of local network equIPment and communication channel.
- The need to configure each camera in the system at the initial start-up, or replacement. Camera is unavailable if internal settings fail.
- The distance from the camera to the signal amplifier is more than 100 m.
The advantages of digital systems also include their prevalence, and a wide range of manufacturers of digital equIPment.
The digital camera is equIPped with a hardware and software complex, which includes a Wi-Fi server, a camera control unit, a signal digitizing unit, a system for supporting autonomous operation.
High resolution, digital and optical zoom allow you to get and process high quality images that are inaccessible to analog complexes. The digital camera is adapted to work in a computer network, and is accessible from anywhere in the world, if there is an Internet connection. The digital image signal is compatible with analysis programs, and is easily processed in face recognition, or other image analysts. The camera is additionally equIPped with motion sensors, if necessary, the recording is carried out only when moving objects appear in the control zone.
Difference between IP and analog cameras
The difference between a digital IP camera and an analog camera lies in the princIPles of encoding the image signal, and the princIPles of camera control.
An IP camera is a digital device that transmits a digital signal adapted for broadcasting through a local or global computer network. The digital camera is controlled via the Internet. The stream transmitted by the IP camera is recorded in the form of a standard file on the disk and viewed by means of the operating system.
An analog camera transmits a signal similar to a low frequency television signal adapted for transmission over dedicated coaxial cables. The recording is done on a device similar to a tape recorder and viewed on a television screen. To transfer a stream from an analog device to a local network, Cloud service the Internet or recording to a computer disk, it must be additionally processed, converting to digital format.
The analog surveillance complex appeared earlier than the digital one and is a simplified version of the television complex.
The difference between an analog camera and IP is in the low definition of the image. The very resolution of the images transmitted for recording started from 0.4 Mp, and the picture clarity at this resolution was unsatisfactory. In the future, the resolution of the transmitted picture was increased and in 2020 systems with a resolution of up to 8 megapixels were released on the market.
The permissible length of the coaxial cable from the installed camera to the receiving device of the surveillance complex is 500 meters, this makes it possible to effectively use it for outdoor surveillance as part of the perimeter.
The advantage of an analog surveillance system is its ease of updating. In place of the old camera, a more modern, HD quality is installed, without replacing the cabling and reconfiguring the system, since analog systems are organized according to the princIPle installed and working.
The disadvantage of the system is that a separate cable must be laid to each camera. The transmitted signal cannot be automatically analyzed by computer means without preliminary digitization.
- High resolution image is transmitted as it is.
- Hybridity. The registration units of the TVI complex support work with relatives cameras, as well as CVBS analog format interface and IP digital camera interface.
- The format supports 8 megapixel clarity (when digitized it is called Ultra HD)
- Distance from the point of installation of observation in the recording console 500 meters without intermediate amplifiers.
- Common cable for. Power supply and control.
Free distribution format, which replaced the PAL television format in surveillance systems.
There are two official encoding formats, and one unofficial:
- AHD 0.8. unofficial standard, resolution 960 × 576 points, the technology is codenamed COMET
- AHD 1.0. 1280 resolution × 720 points; when digitizing, the resolution is called HD
- AHD 2.0. 1920 resolution × 1080 points; when digitizing, the resolution is called FullHD
Configuring an IP Surveillance Camera
The quality of the stream from the IP camera can be configured. For the MJPEG format, the parameters are adjustable: resolution, frame rate, quality. For MPEG-4 and H.264. resolution, bit rate, quality. The frame rate is the number of frames per unit of time, and the bit rate is determined by the amount of bandwidth. The larger these values are, the smoother it will be and the more weighs files. However, frame rates are limited by bandwidth, so you shouldn’t overestimate these parameters. For a smooth series, a frame rate of 24 frames per second is sufficient, if this characteristic does not matter, you can use professional recommendations:
- Cashier. 12-15 fps;
- School and office corridors. 5 fps;
- Parking. 1-3 frames / s;
- Stadiums without competition. 1 fps.
The required frame rate depends on the speed and direction of the subject. High frequency is required for high speed of the object in the horizontal direction.
Common IP Camera Resolution
When choosing the resolution of an IP camera, you need to clearly understand whether there will be any benefit from an ultra-detailed picture. A 12MP network camera can be purchased, but the 16: 9 aspect ratio only has 1MP and 2MP resolutions, respectively, 1280 × 720 points and 1980 × 1080 points. Cameras with higher resolution transmit images with an aspect ratio of 4: 3, so in fact, from a 4-megapixel camera it may look worse on the same screen than from a 2-megapixel device. All other things being equal, the higher the resolution, the more informative the image.
Differences between an IP camera and an analog one
Analog and IP cameras find their customers. The choice between analog and IP equIPment is fundamental, because these devices are significantly different from each other, have objective advantages and disadvantages.
A classic analog camera is characterized by low resolution. It is transmitted through the cable as a low-frequency signal. Benefits:
- Work does NOT depend on the degree of illumination;
- Better when shooting on the move;
- Unlimited bandwidth;
- NOT susceptible to hacker attacks.
When choosing systems based on analog cameras, you should be prepared for the following disadvantages:
- Limited recording duration;
- Analogue interference due to electromagnetic interference (the longer the cable, the more interference)
- Near image quality;
- Problems with storing large numbers of records.
Gradually, classical devices are replacing cameras, which are also intended for analog surveillance, but have a high resolution. At the moment, Three standards are presented: AHD, CVI, TVI. The differences between them are minimal, but they are NOT compatible with each other:
- TVI signal transmits picture with resolution up to 1920 × 1080 points. Main difference: Separates luma and chroma for clearer images.
- CVI translates to high definition composite interface. The signal is also transmitted over the coaxial cable. Technology controlled by Dahua.
- An AHD camera transmits an image geometrically close to a digital signal, and the frame size is 1280 × 720 points.
Analog cameras have the following advantages:
- It’s easier to connect, because they do NOT require network settings, network bandwidth calculation, connection to a router, switches. When connecting AHD equIPment, you can use the old cable route left over from the classic analog system, you just need to change the cameras and the recorder.
- There are no delays or freezes during signal transmission. In real time, analog devices are broadcast at 25 frames per second, so the picture is smooth.
- If a high-quality cable is used for laying the route, the signal is transmitted without interference and amplifiers over a distance of 500 m, and with the help of active-type transceivers, the transmission distance can be increased to 1500 m.
- AHD equIPment from different manufacturers is compatible with each other due to a single standard.
- Analog cameras shoot better at night. Because they have a higher light sensitivity compared to IP cameras.
IP cameras are more expensive, but this does NOT stop those who value the advantages of an IP surveillance system:
- IP cameras are much more functional than analog devices. They can be integrated into a general security system, which also includes an access control management system, a fire safety system.
- Advanced IP cameras allow you to recognize faces, license plates, take screenshots, send notifications when an object disappears from a specified area.
- So far, only network equIPment has super-high resolution. If the absolute maximum for analog devices is 3 megapixels, then network cameras can be with a resolution of 10-12 megapixels and even higher. Their installation is justified where high image detail is required.
- Select models can shoot at an increased frame rate, provide a 360-degree view. no blind spots.
- The network surveillance system is installed on the basis of a computer or recorder. The latter is NOT required.
- Since to connect IP cameras that support POE technology, a network cable is used, which simultaneously transmits an audio signal, power supply, and does not require the laying of additional lines.
- An NVR is significantly cheaper than a hybrid NVR. Devices only for connecting analog cameras are no longer produced.
The disadvantages of networking equIPment are:
- Low light sensitivity and color quality.
- In the case of IP cameras, the transmission distance is NOT more than 100 meters, provided that a high-quality copper cable with a core thickness of at least 0.5 mm is used. If you lay a copper-plated aluminum network cable in cold conditions, the transmission distance is reduced to 25-30 m.To broadcast the signal over long distances, you must use switches that retransmit the signal.
Most popular resolution: 1 MP, 1.3 MP, 2 MP, provided by both network and analog equIPment.
Cameras are connected using special cables patch cords. It can be included in the kit. Crimping the cable is performed using a special crimping tool. crimpers. In this case, it is important to observe the pinout.
A cable with pinout according to the T568A standard is used to connect a switch or modem to a computer. When the terminal is located with the flat side down, the diagram is read from right to left:
- White and blue;
The T568B standard is used to connect two computer devices via a network card. The diagram is also read from right to left:
- White and blue;
An 8-core UTP-twisted pair cable is used to connect IP cameras. The insulation is removed from the end of the cable. In the RJ-45 connector, the wires are inserted in the order that corresponds to the T568B standard. Since with a simple internet connection, only 1, 2, 3 and 6 conductors are used, the free conductors can be used to power the camera, for example, 4. blue and 8. brown. In this case, the brown and blue conductors are strIPped and fixed in the power connector: brown. in. blue. in.
Then the conductors are cut to 1 cm and fixed in the RJ-45 connector in the appropriate color sequence. Crimp crimpers.
The ready-made connectors are inserted into the sockets of the IP camera and the wires are laid to the recorder, switchboard or laptop / computer. The second side of the cable is also crimped according to the diagram and connected to the existing device. The power cable is connected to the power source, be sure to observe the polarity.
Direct connection to laptop and browser
The IP camera can be directly connected to a laptop or PC because it has its own web server. However, a maximum of one camera can be used and the LAN port will be occupied. If you connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi, the port can be used to connect an IP camera.
- Complete power supply;
- Cable twisted pair.
The camera comes with a connecting cord with a through pinout (patch cord). One side is crimped according to the 568A scheme, the other. according to 568B. The end of the patch cord plugs into the RJ-45 connector and the other into the laptop / computer. A power supply is connected to the camera, which is inserted into an outlet.
The camera’s IP address is set by default. It can be indicated in the instructions, on the box, on stickers. It can be changed via a web browser. Laptop and device Must be on the same subnet. This means that the numbers of the IP address, except for those following the last dot, must match. To change the default IP, you need to open Network and Sharing Center, then go to tab condition and go to Properties. In component properties Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP / IPv4) any subnet address is specified. Sometimes the port is separately indicated with a colon.
To check the connection, you need to enter the address of the IP camera into the address bar of the web browser. If there is a connection, the system will require you to enter a username and password to view the image. Next, a special recording software is installed. Thus, the IP camera can be viewed from any device that connects to the Internet through a standard web browser. The address line contains the IP address and port number.
IP surveillance camera connection diagram
Surveillance systems allow you to receive visual and audio information from a certain distance from the observation site. IP surveillance makes it possible to view data from cameras from any point where there is an Internet connection.
According to the typical connection diagram, several IP cameras are required to create a complete IP surveillance system. The image from them can be viewed via an Internet connection using a computer or phone, tablet. For devices to work properly, you need a switch or switch. It connects cameras to a local network. A network recorder may be required whose function is to record, display and store recorded material. To access IP surveillance, you need to organize Internet access. For this purpose, the switch is connected to the router. A computer is used as a server. It is necessary for direct interaction with cameras: requesting images, transferring them, saving.
The equIPment is interconnected using a twisted pair: UTP, FTS and STP. These varieties differ in the type of shielding. Then the settings for access to cameras and recorder are made. Access to viewing from an IP camera is configured via an Internet browser or client program. The first allows you to remotely browse. But to control MultIPle cameras, you need special software.
The special software has a graphical interface and functionality sufficient for comfortable GoPro viewing and analysis:
- Viewing in recording;
- Changing the frame rate;
- Extraction of materials;
- Recording initiation;
- Camera tilt.
Popular free software products include:
- Xproject Go;
- Zone Minder;
- Axxon Next;
Sometimes the software comes with the camera on disk.
IP camera definition and working princIPle
IP surveillance cameras are often called network cameras because they record in digital format and use a computer network for broadcasting, transmitting data through the nodes of the local computer network to the end user over great distances. Modern IP cameras have high resolution and are equIPped with various additional functions:
- Translation of the image into the desired format;
- Intelligent image analysis, in particular face recognition;
- Motion Detection;
- Audio Difficult;
- Automatic alerts.
Network devices differ in the type of execution:
- Housing. have a sealed casing that protects from the influence of the external environment.
- Boxed multimedia. installed indoors, equIPped with a microphone and a connector for a flash card.
- Dome. Provides 360 ° view. usually installed indoors on the ceiling, there are also outdoor devices.
- Rotary. used to track an object, change the angle of view, equIPped with a zoom.
- Cylindrical. universal, installed inside and outside.
The first IP camera was created in 1996. It had a resolution of only 0.3 megapixels and at that time could not compete with analog systems.
IP Surveillance Connection and Installation
Connecting and installing a network camera are tasks that require specialized skills and knowledge. Users have to turn to specialists due to problems arising in the process.
The difference between a digital camera and an analog camera
First, let’s clarify the concepts themselves. Analog technology, in simple terms, is a technique that transmits a signal from source, and does not distort its smoothness and DO NOT break it. Examples include old cameras, photographs, pre-computer televisions. they were all analog. Digital technology is a technique that takes a signal, and then divides it into tiny particles and restores its former form already in binary form.
A new kind of cameras, digital, appeared when it became necessary to record sound in a computer format. binary. Analog recordings cannot be saved on the computer!
If you look closely, the image from a digital camera consists of the smallest squares-pixels, imitating a real object. However, there is no need to worry about this: the resolution of cameras has reached such indicators that the human eye is no longer able to distinguish an analog frame from a digital one.
Digital security cameras
Posted in observation
No matter how familiar digital surveillance cameras (or IP, or network cameras, as they are also called) seem to us, they appeared on the security alarm market just a dozen years ago. What is this new, higher stage in the development of technology, and what benefits does it promise us?
How digital camera recordings benefit us?
- As we have already mentioned, this is the ability to work on the basis of a regular home or office computer. There is a need for Special servers and devices.
- The signal from the camera goes through a cable, over a radio channel or is placed on a USB flash drive already in a form completely ready for viewing on a computer.
- Picture quality and clarity are virtually endless! Many manufacturers of digital surveillance cameras increase the resolution so much that we can enlarge the picture, even see the facial features of people in the crowd half a kilometer from the camera. A great opportunity to detect intruders! Unfortunately, when using analog cameras, this trick will not work.
- Setting up and installing a digital surveillance network is within the power of even an average computer user, and not just an installation engineer, as in the case of analog cameras. All the work of a network of cameras and their connection obey the usual computer aLGorithms of work, and if, say, you know how to work with Windows and know where to connect a USB flash drive, you can do it.
- Another undoubted plus is that digital security cameras receive energy through the same cable through which their signal passes (like, say, an external computer’s disk drive or an ordinary wired mouse). Accordingly, the number of cables is reduced to a different one, in contrast to analog cameras.
Models and prices
Hikvision, DS-2CC52A2P-IT3. The cost
Also excellent firms that make digital cameras are Axis, ActiveCam, Panasonic, DSSL (the latter is Russian).
Activecam, AC-A353. The cost
As for the price. it is determined only by your imagination. As we said, the quality of IP cameras can range from small (as in, say, an inexpensive camera built into a phone or laptop) to incredible (as in an anti-vandal, moisture-resistant, high-definition IR camera, etc., each of the which costs several tens of thousands of rubles). Let’s add here the ramification of the network of cameras. and we get the price range of your IP-system, starting with a couple of hundred rubles and ending in a transcendental foggy distance.
In general, at the moment, digital cameras with similar parameters are slightly more expensive than their analog counterparts.
Digital surveillance cameras are our future. Let’s join it now!