How to independently install video surveillance at home
Install video surveillance in a private house. the task of every owner of a residential building, who cares about their safety. For this purpose, you need to decide on the type of system, select the appropriate cameras and read the detailed instructions that include all the main steps.
The need to install video surveillance in a private house
A full-fledged installation of video surveillance in a private house is a necessity, because the safety of property and health of residents depends on its presence. In addition, cameras located near the building and on the site will help to get evidence in case of any illegal actions of third parties.
Most often, devices are installed on the street, for example, around the house, along the perimeter of the territory or near the gate.
Installation of cameras does not contradict the requirements of the law, if the angles of their view DO NOT affect the areas of neighbors.
Popular options for video surveillance systems
Home video surveillance in a private house can be organized using analog or digital cameras. Both types have their pros and cons, which must be considered in advance.
With analog or AHD cameras
AHD devices are a hybrid version, in the process they process a digital signal and convert it to analog. This combination allows you to get a high quality picture and transmit it over long distances. Cameras of this type work using CMOS sensors, which are characterized by the presence of an increased amount of noise. This drawback can be eliminated thanks to special software that removes interference and improves image quality.
Signals from analog cameras come via coaxial cables at distances of up to 500 meters, they can be increased to 700-800 meters. At the same time, there is no signal compression in such devices, so the picture on the screen will not hang like in IP cameras, which take time to digitize the image.
AHD video surveillance for home is considered the most economical in comparison with digital.
Digital IP and HD-SDI systems
IP cameras combine the functions of surveillance devices and mini-computers. They record video and simultaneously broadcast the video stream in digital format, using network protocols using packet routing. Such devices consist of a lens, a matrix, and processors. In the process, the lenses focus the image on the matrix, which converts its color into a digital signal, which is fed to the processor. After the video stream, they switch to the compressor, which compresses them and transmits them to the network via Ethernet.
Each camera has its own IP address, which is transmitted with the connection and is used in the process of synchronizing the device with the recorder. Without it, installing home video surveillance with your own hands and fully setting up the system will be impossible. Camcorders of this type broadcast streams to a server, personal computer or to the cloud, the destination of the data will depend on the wishes of the user and the installation conditions. If we are talking about the installation and connection of several cameras, they are connected to the recorder using a router, switch, or use a separate port for each.
Video surveillance for a private house can be purchased as a kit that includes all the necessary parts. The standard list includes a set of cameras, a video recorder, a hard drive that will store the data, a power supply, and cables for connection. The main advantage of the ready-made kit is the absence of problems during installation and the presence of all the necessary parts and fasteners that will be compatible.
It should be borne in mind that ready-made systems are designed for a specific number of cameras, which does not have to exceed 8 pieces. In addition, they are not suitable for those who already have an installed video surveillance system that needs to be changed or expanded.
Features of tracking systems
Most often, street or outdoor video surveillance systems are organized for private houses. They can be combined with internal tracking systems, if available, or made completely independent, in which case they will need a separate monitor and video recorder. Such systems include a certain number of cameras, a device for storing and recording data, equipment for power supply and a screen on which the image will be displayed.
Wireless surveillance systems operate using technologies using Wi-Fi, 3G or GSM. Their equipment includes cameras in the required quantity, a signal receiver, a video recorder, a control panel, as well as a set of routers and routers. During operation, the recorders transmit signals and images from video cameras directly or via a receiver to the Internet or to a telephone. This type of system has many advantages, including independence from external sources, remote control, the ability to view information from mobile devices, and much more.
Camera selection criteria
Cameras can be analog or digital, indoor or outdoor to suit the needs of home owners. When buying, you need to pay attention to the viewing angle and focal length of the devices. Wide-angle short-throw lenses allow you to see the general area, telephoto lenses allow you to clearly recognize individual details and people’s faces.
The quality of the picture is affected by the resolution of the camera, it is better to choose models in which this indicator is lower. Devices can be color or black and white, and also equipped with IR illumination to be able to clearly shoot objects in the dark. The best option would be models that can be installed on the street, in a house or apartment, combine both modes and allow you to change them depending on your needs.
The main stages of installing video surveillance in a private house
You can organize the system in the house on your own. Before installing video cameras, you will need to draw up a layout of the equipment, determine the length of the cable and the power supply.
During the construction of the drawing, you need a tent point for installing the devices in such a way as to eliminate dead zones. DVRs or a server are placed in places hidden from prying eyes, since this is where important data will be stored. Monitors can be installed in any convenient place.
Laying of cable routes
If analog devices are used to organize the system, it is better to choose coaxial cables for routing, rather than requiring the use of additional adapters. For IP analogs, twisted pairs are used to reduce the effect of electromagnetic interference. Laying the line should start from the points farthest from the DVR, and then connect nearby objects, calculate the cable length with a margin. This process can be open or closed, in the first case, the wires are placed on supports or along the fences, in the second they are laid underground or inside walls in Corrugated pipes.
Devices Should provide a good overview of the entire territory and at the same time be located in invisible places for strangers. It is better to select fasteners for cameras separately, giving preference to the most reliable options to prevent devices from falling and vibration.
For safety reasons, camcorders are NOT mounted on metal holders.
DVR and system connection
Connect the DVR, you need to make sure that all devices are correctly connected to their intended connectors. For correct operation, the device is placed in a place with good air circulation and DO NOT allow it to overheat. After connecting all the components, you can supply power to the recorder.
To organize a full-fledged tracking system, you will need to configure the equipment included in it. The user needs to set the time and date on each device, complete their configuration, format hard drives for data storage, and set up video recording and remote access to cameras.
The location of the tracking devices depends on the size of the area to be monitored and its additional features. Better to position the cameras so that they can be easily removed when replacement or repair is needed.
At all stages of organizing a tracking system for a private house, it is important to avoid common mistakes in order to Get the desired result:
- Incorrect calculations arising from problems in the process of measuring the distance from cameras to the recorder, as well as unsuitable cables;
- Power problems that can become a prerequisite for the failure of devices at the wrong time;
- Errors when choosing a storage method and disk size.
The wrong selection of system components can also lead to difficulties with its operation.
VIDEO SURVEILLANCE INSTALLATION IN A PRIVATE HOUSE
Video surveillance in a private house can be installed:
To organize remote control in the absence of owners.
Observing the adjoining territory, gates, wickets when residents are in the house or recording information to the registrar for later viewing.
A variant combining these two tasks is possible. For each case, there is a composition of equipment, rules for its installation and placement.
A standard video surveillance kit includes:
- Video recorder;
- Power Supply.
Situations are possible when one video camera is enough, but more on that later.
Another point concerns the choice of the type of system: analog or IP. For a private house, in most cases, analog is sufficient. In favor of this choice:
- Its very low cost;
- Operational reliability (no failures, freezes, etc.);
- Easy to install and configure.
The last argument may be decisive for those who decide to install video surveillance in their home on their own. By the way, this material is mostly designed specifically for those who want to do the work with their own hands.
Since the main and mandatory part of a video surveillance system is a camera, we will start by considering the rules for its selection and installation.
CCTV camera settings in a private house
Priority in considering this topic will be given to analog video cameras and related equipment.
Of course, digital devices have additional capabilities. How much you need them you can decide by reading the material about what IP cameras are.
First stage. choice of a video camera taking into account the required options and characteristics. Look HERE about how to choose a CCTV camera, including for home (there is not much difference in comparison with other objects).
As for the installation, the location is:
- On the street;
- Or indoors,
The first point is more difficult. It is best if it is possible to place video cameras on the outside of the house. At the same time, the issue of entering cables inside, although it presents some technical difficulties, is almost always possible to implement at low cost.
The advantages of this option are obvious: there is a convenient supporting structure (wall) for fixing the camera and laying the cable route.
A significant obstacle to this installation method may be the inability to provide the required viewing area. But even in this case, it makes sense to try to solve the problem with hardware, for example, using a long-focus or varifocal lens.
If this does not help, then there are mounting options:
- On existing structures (fences, service buildings)
- Specially installed supports.
In any case, the cable route (or part of it) will pass through the air. I don’t think anyone would prefer an underground installation. “Air” should be carried out on a cable suspension. Among other things, this method allows you to use large spans without significant sagging and the installation of additional supports.
As for laying the cable in a metal hose or corrugated hose, the expediency of this method is not unambiguous.
One side. it is an additional mechanical and complete UV protection. With another. there is a possibility of ingress of atmospheric moisture. If the wire and the protection itself freeze, they can be damaged.
Such insulation will be necessarily black and marked with XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene). Foreign manufacturers use the designations: XLPE, VPE, PEX.
When installing analog cameras (no matter what technology they use AHD, CVI, TVI), a coaxial cable is used to connect them. The use of a twisted pair is possible, but with small lengths of cable lines (up to 100 meters, which is typical for a private house), it is practically not used.
The best option in this case is the combined cable KVK-P-2 2×0.75, which, under the general insulation, unites the RK 75 coaxial cable and the ShVVP power cord (two cores with a cross section of 0.75 mm2 each). There are versions with a cross section of 0.5 mm 2 but the voltage drop for them is higher.
Last thing. cable and wire connections (connectors) for outdoor installation Must be reliably sealed. The “classic” way is to use junction boxes with IP65 protection.
IP video surveillance for a PRIVATE HOUSE
Installation of IP surveillance cameras in a private house is usually done. In cases where it is required to provide remote access to them.
But even for THESE purposes, analog equipment can be used. Any modern analog video recorder has an Ethernet connection.
The organization of video surveillance via the Internet is considered here and can be implemented by:
- Static IP address;
- Dynamic name servers;
- Cloud services.
At the same time, there is no fundamental difference in which recorder we will use: analog or digital. It should only be borne in mind that without the use of additional equipment, only a wired connection is possible.
If you plan to use 3G or 4G Internet, then you need to additionally install the Corresponding modem.
It is also possible to install a camera working via a network directly. Naturally, it must have a built-in module (for wireless) connections. But this option does not allow using multiple cameras. precisely, you can use it, but for each you have to create a separate connection and, of course, pays for it.
By the way, in this case the best is:
- Use Cloud video surveillance services;
- Install cameras recommended by the selected cloud provider.
But a remote connection requires more complex configuration (no matter wired or wireless), so you should have the skills to work with computer networks.
The easiest way from this point of view is the installation of cloudy video surveillance, specially “sharpening” for this mode of operation.
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Installation of CCTV cameras: types of cameras, choice of installation and do-it-yourself connection
Thinking about purchasing such equipment, one has to face a lot of questions. Which video system is better, what do its characteristics mean, how to choose the right model, is it possible to independently install CCTV cameras and connect them? Our detailed review will help you understand all this.
Types of CCTV cameras
There are various types of cameras in this market segment. They differ from each other in the principle of operation, design, technical characteristics.
According to the principle of operation, two large groups of devices are distinguished:
It is difficult to distinguish them visually, but if you know some of the nuances, then you will never confuse them.
Based on the design features and installation location, the following types are the most popular:
- Classic or cabinet. They are installed mainly outside, provided they are equipped with a thermal casing.
- Dome. Most often installed on the ceiling indoors, but can also be used for outdoor installation.
- Swivel. Such a user device, located at the control panel, can expand, enlarge the image. The system is convenient when you need to instantly react to a situation.
- Panoramic. Provides maximum visibility while minimizing blind spots. If necessary, the picture can be split into separate fragments.
- Mini cameras. Indispensable for covert surveillance.
Street cameras (street. Street) are present in both large and small objects. Important characteristics for them are distance from the object, geometry of the view, picture resolution.
Typically, these models are equipped with IR illumination, a housing that protects against external influences. It is important that it be possible to configure individual parameters automatically.
The device has a viewing angle ranging from 60 to 100⁰. They are black and white and colored, with or without backlighting. They are compact, have a weak reaction to interference, they can take pictures both in the daytime and at night.
Dome cameras are used to protect large areas. Their rotation takes place by means of the ptz-mechanism. You can even activate the camera remotely. The picture can not only be returned, but also scaled.
Installation of such a camera is also permissible indoors. The high level of security of this equipment allows it to be used in difficult weather conditions, in the nuclear and chemical industries.
Box cameras. Their popularity is low. they are not very convenient due to the fact that you have to arrange them yourself with a lens and a bracket.
Basically, they are mounted outside, and if inside, then only in such specific places as, for example, a bank cashier. The image is produced by such a camera of high quality, the signal transmission range is quite large, the lens can be changed depending on the distance to the object.
Mini cameras can be powered by a battery, there are both wired and wireless models. They write to a mobile device via a GSM module or to a memory card. They have an increased protection class and good technical characteristics.
digital cameras and their characteristics
A digital or IP camera captures the signal in digital form and in the same form transmits it to the consumer through a computer network.
Outwardly, such a camera differs from the others only in the connector. If in analog devices it is BNC. RF coaxial connector, the IP camera is equipped with a twisted pair connector. RJ-45.
Such a video surveillance camera is connected to a computer, but here it should be borne in mind that it is not worth building the entire surveillance system on the basis of a home computer.
It is not designed for 24/7 continuous operation and will fail very quickly, especially if multiple cameras are included in the system. This may be too much for the hard drive.
It is better to immediately purchase a DVR, although many IP cameras are independent devices and have an individual web interface.
There are cameras with a slot for a USB flash drive or with a slot for an SD card, where you can archive recordings. In this case, the need for a video recorder disappears.
A great advantage of digital video cameras is that being at the other end of the world, you can observe what is happening in your office or at home through a laptop monitor or mobile smartphone.
IP cameras differ from each other in body design.
IP cameras can be connected to cloud storages, with their participation, you can create a large-scale video surveillance system and include a large number of devices in it.
Due to the invulnerable authorization system and reliable data encoding, a high degree of security is guaranteed for users.
Also, these devices have great integration potential. It is possible from one device to remotely control video surveillance, lighting, fire system.
Video recording from digital IP has a high resolution, which allows you to see small details, clothes, a person’s face without blurring.
Analog cameras do not give such a clear picture, it is difficult to identify what they see. This is explained by the fact that the analog video signal is formed using the TVL interleaving system.
In digital cameras, line interleaving is removed by using sequential scanning technology. Clearly captures IP camera and fast moving objects.
features of analog cameras
An analog camera can be easily recognized by looking at the description. If there are three English letters NVL. this is an analog camera.
This format is the simplest. there is a camera in the circuit, and two conductors are connected to it. One of them receives power, the second. the signal is removed. The output picture is not very good quality.
The resolution limit of analog cameras for video surveillance is 720 x 576 pixels, which is several times lower than in modern digital cameras.
Such cameras are called, capable of transmitting an image only over a short distance, simply analog or CVBS. These obsolete standards include VGA, D1, 960H devices.
new standards or HD cameras
By the same principle that a simple analog camera is an HD-camera, only this is a more advanced form, in which three main formats are combined together: TVI, AHD, CVI. This is a breakthrough in analog video surveillance.
They can transmit an image with a resolution:
- 0.4 MP. 722,576;
- 1 MP. 1280720;
- 2 MP. 19201080;
- 3 MP. 20481536;
- 5 MP. 25601920.
Their quality is comparable to IP cameras. The latest equipment is capable of transmitting the maximum clarity of the picture captured on site.
The image acquisition mechanism can be briefly described as follows:
- After passing through the lens, the image is focused on the CCD.
- Light energy is converted into electrical charge.
- Conversion of electrical charges into an analog signal occurs.
- The signal is transmitted through the cable to a pleasant device.
There is no conversion of the electrical signal into binary code, it comes to the recording device unchanged. This is what distinguishes analog cameras from digital ones.
This greatly simplifies the monitoring process, there is no need for processing on a computer.
If you connect an analog video camera with a digital converter, it will be possible to receive a signal from several cameras.
When purchasing any camera from the AHD, HD-CVI, HD-TVI categories, you should know that they are all incompatible with each other, since they are produced by different companies. When buying a camera of a certain standard, you need to select a DVR for it that supports the same standard.
HD-SDI devices are standardized, so they are compatible with all DVRs. IP cameras are standardized by ON VIF International Interindustry Organization.
This organization is engaged in the standardization of equipment and IP cameras as well. They also develop specifications for them. Camcorders of the same specification are compatible.
Rules for choosing CCTV cameras
Given the abundance of offers on the market, it is difficult to decide which camera to choose. First of all, you need to decide on the standard by evaluating a number of parameters.
Functionality. If you want a high quality picture, smart options are essential. motion detection, presence detection, high detail, then you need to purchase an IP camera.
There is another nuance: although there are cameras that work autonomously, you cannot include a large number of them in the system. optimal No pain in four pieces. Otherwise, it is better to use the option with a DVR.
Resolution. With the transition of analog cameras to HD format, this parameter approached the characteristics of IP cameras. This standard is applicable to any object, but still small details may NOT be considered.
The price inclines in favor of their choice, but their functionality is lower and they definitely need a DVR.
Place of installation. If you want to install a video surveillance system outside, then the cameras must have the appropriate characteristics. Dome cameras work well for indoor installations without additional protection.
Lens viewing angle and focal length. Wide angle short throw lens. a good solution for a cottage, office.
Long focal length lens and maximum 45 degree field of view. a good option for entering a house or for monitoring a distant object, when clear detail is a priority.
There are cameras equipped with a lens that has a certain focal range that fluctuates around 2.8. 12 mm. Such devices are called “varifocal”.
Based on your needs, you can adjust the viewing angle yourself. The cost of such cameras is much higher than devices equipped with a lens with a stable focal length.
Some consumers are guided by the megapixel count when buying a camera. This is not entirely true. It is very often difficult to see a big difference in image quality from a 2MP and 8MP IP camera. But the cost differs significantly.
Light sensitivity. This parameter is of great importance when choosing a camera for 24/7 surveillance. This is the minimum illumination threshold at which the camera can function.
The higher this parameter, the clearer the picture obtained at twilight and at night. The latest models almost all have IR illumination, so video surveillance is effective even when it is completely dark.
Given these circumstances, it is imperative to look at what lighting conditions the camera is designed for. Before that, you need to measure this parameter with a lux meter in the place where the video camera is supposed to be installed. If in the future the device will work around the clock, the photosensitivity should be at least 0.01 lux.
Since the illumination during the day cannot be stable, it is necessary to make sure that the camera has an automatic diaphragm opening control. Such devices are able to maintain a stable luminous flux falling on the matrix.
Cameras with WDR support are of higher quality. Even many economy cameras support this feature, allowing you to display images without deep shadows and overly bright areas.
The only difference is that expensive cameras are equipped with genuine WDR, and budget ones. “Analogs”.
If video surveillance should NOT stop either day or night, and the information from the camera should be as detailed as possible, a model with a “day-night” mode is needed. As soon as night falls, it switches to monochrome mode automatically. The IR filter cannot provide a color picture.
Backlighting. A camera that will operate at night must have infrared illumination. Key parameter of IR illumination. range of action. 10.20 m is enough for the premises, outdoors. more than 20 m.
Latest camera models Equipped with adaptive lighting. Her role. power adjustment depending on the location of objects located near the camera.
Self-assembly of the system
If you are going to increase the security of your home by installing video surveillance, you can choose two ways to implement this idea: contact a specialist or start installing CCTV cameras yourself.
The first method is quite costly, and the second. quite workable if you are familiar with modern technology and the drill is for you. familiar tool.
Stage # 1.planning and schemes of video surveillance
From the very beginning, you need to decide on the installation site, the number of cameras and their task. If you have a private house or summer cottage, then the observation Should cover Not only the interior premises, but also the adjacent territory.
In an apartment, cameras are most often installed in order to control the situation during the absence of the owners. It is advisable to have them in living rooms, especially in places where some valuables are stored. It is worth considering installing a camera at the entrance to the apartment.
Having decided on the general questions, they begin to develop the scheme. The locations of the intended laying of wires are chosen so that they do NOT intersect with the existing power line.
It can interfere with the video signal if the distance to it is less than one meter. Protect from interference and protection in the form of a metal sleeve, wires are brought into it and grounded.
The next step is to determine the viewing angle. Depending on the goals, it can be configured so that small details are visible or to increase delight, while sacrificing details.
Next, you should think about where to place the DVR and monitor. Considering confidentiality, access to them should be limited. It’s good if there is a separate closed room or at least a closet.
Stage # 2. installation of the system
They start by installing the actual video cameras. Inside, they are placed under the ceiling. The main thing is that they are near outlets. Outside, video surveillance devices are positioned so that they cannot be ripped off.
Camera installation consists of several operations:
- Dismantle the mounting casing;
- They apply it to a pre-selected place and make markings through the mounting holes;
- Take a punch and drill the wall or ceiling, then insert the dowels;
- Apply the casing, aligning the mounting holes on it with the one drilled on the plane to be attached;
- Screws are screwed in and complement the body with a lens;
- Sets the viewing angle of the device.
Experts do NOT recommend installing CCTV devices too high. A clear image can be obtained if the camera is located no more than 4 m from the ground.In order not to light the picture, you must not place the camera in front of the sun.
In addition to fastening with screws, there are other options: suction cups, Velcro. The first method of mounting video devices is still considered the most reliable.
Stage # 3.Connect the camcorder correctly
There are only two types of connection: to a power source and to a device that receives information.
To nutrition. Since there is an adapter in each camera, a reduced voltage is supplied through it, its plug is simply connected to the outlet. The plug on the other end is inserted into the chamber. There is a special socket for this on the back of the camera housing.
To the receiving device. For the second connection option, it is necessary to have a wire equipped with BNC.RG6 connectors. On the video device, an output is provided for it, and an input on the receiver.
Connecting a wireless camera is even easier. The CD with the program is usually included with the camera. All that remains is to install it on your computer.
Next, connect the router via wi-fi, then the camera itself. It is connected to the network and, using a network cable, connected to the router.
The next step. configuring network parameters in the program itself. To do this, enter the key and other data and disconnect the network wire. After rebooting, the camera will automatically connect to the router. Now the picture transmitted by the camera will be available.
Video cameras can be an element of an intelligent “smart home” system that controls various equipment in a room. Read more about the device and capabilities of such a complex in this article.
Conclusions and useful video
To make it easier for you to understand the intricacies of equipment installation and connection, we suggest watching the following video, where these issues are covered in detail:
The main condition for choosing the right video camera. its compliance with the conditions where it will be applied. Even if the chosen equipment turns out to be far from cheap, and it will take a lot of effort to install it, the safety of your home is worth it.
If you have doubts about your own abilities, then the best option would be to contact an organization / company specializing in the installation of video surveillance systems, including cameras and other equipment.