Criterias of choice
What is amateur filming nowadays? The vast majority will answer: Smartphone. And this, unfortunately, will be true. Smartphone is always in your. ready to shoot. And few people are confused by the fact that the final stop of the receiveds is loading into some web service with the subsequent expectation of likes. The fact itself is important: I took it off!
However, many manage to shoot a smartphone, not only cats. An example is the movie that came out this year. This is probably the first feature film (or one of the first) to be completely filmed with a smartphone and at the same time received a rental certificate. Here the role of the camera was played by the IPhone 7 Plus with the Moment Lens mounted on it, the whole structure was attached to a gyro-stabilizing gimbal, and the recording was carried out by the Filmic Pro mobile application with the Log preset turned on, which gives a low-contrast picture, which made it possible to carry out thorough post-processing (color correction) of the material.
The listed little things transfer this shooting from the category of amateur (which is determined by the introduction of a smartphone) into the professional sphere. The lighting technology is not visible in the frame, but do not be so kind as to doubt its presence. But what can I say, the mere fact of the horizontal position of the smartphone. see how the operator holds the frame. is an unheard-of desecration of amateur smartphone photography, which, by definition, must be vertical!
By the way, the film turned out to be quite watchable, judging by the IMDb rating. But for this I need to say thanks to the Talented actors, and NOT the shooting equIPment at all, since it is of high quality. Spectacularity, blurry background and other cinematics were not required for the plot.
This example is an exception to the rule. Because in everyday amateur filming, there is usually NO direction, auxiliary equIPment, and even with talented actors, it is completely full of seams. In order to compensate for the lack of a plot game, an amateur needs a camera with a decent shooting quality. This is a familiar cinematic move, when the lack of a plot is drawn out by special effects. So, the first criterion for choosing a camera we have identified is the quality
The second most important condition for shooting a gadget is directly related to the intended shooting conditions. For example, an extreme tourist does not need a fragile expensive camera with a suitcase of interchangeable optics, and a blogger who has undertaken to teach humanity new methods of cooking eggs is unlikely to be interested in a miniature action camera. This means, in addition to quality. There is a second, and not less important criterion: the form factor of the device. Unfortunately, the key features of the camera are determined by the design of the camera, so here you will most likely have to make a compromise.
The third factor, in accordance with Which the camera is selected, consists of many characteristics, let’s call them others. This can include the presence of an optical zoom in the camera, one or another GoPro software, the ability to remotely control and many other parameters that are unique and inimitable for each model.
Now that the main selection criteria have been determined, let’s move on to a detailed study of THESE parameters, because the choice of a camera for shooting depends on them.
The operating time of the camera, provided by a full charge of the standard battery, depends not only on the capacity of the battery, but also on the gluttony of SEPARATE electronic components of the device. The most insatiable are the sensor and the processor, which processes and encodes. With the development of microelectronics, their energy consumption decreases, which is good news. By the way, there is still an opinion that a significant part of the energy is taken by the working displays of cameras. This is not the case for a long time. We have repeatedly measured the battery consumption of modern cameras during their operation with the screen on and off. the difference turned out to be at the level of natural error, within 5-10%. Often the Wi-Fi adapter in the camera draws more power than the display.
According to the collected and average information, the most wasteful gadgets are cameras and action cameras. In terms of battery life, they are at about the same level, working on average about 90 minutes from a standard battery. Of course, here again there are some exceptions: the Leica SL (Typ 601) camera lasts 130 minutes, and the YI 4K action camera lasts almost two hours. But the records of low power consumption are collected only by representatives of the family of camcorders, working on battery, on average, twice as long as cameras and action devices. So, the Canon Legria HF-G40 camera records 160 minutes on a single charge, the Sony FDR-AX700. 190 minutes, and the protected tourist JVC GZ-R495 gives absolutely unthinkable 330 minutes of recording.
Here is a pitiful monologue from the publicity booth. If an action camera or camcorder is always allowed to be powered from a third-party power source (portable battery, AC adapter) through the connector built into these cameras, then such a trick will not work with the camera. The vast majority of cameras simply lack power connectors. In order to work stationary, photographers even use dummies of rechargeable batteries with power supplied from outside. But this is quite expensive and, in general, an extra accessory that costs money. Anyway, it looks a little wild, kind of funny. It would seem, well, what should a developer add a cheap power connector to a camera? Although, the idea is just clear. If you want to work for a long time. be kind to buy a battery. And two more. And don’t forget the charger for them. Now that’s right.
In the previous chapter, we listed the quality aspects to consider when choosing a camera for shooting. But we must not forget that some aspects, in turn, depend on the form factor of the camera. Simply put, on the design of the device. For example, the small image sensor and optics used in action cameras are in no way able to give a picture with pronounced bokeh, this film-photographic effect blurred the background. And good stabilization is present only in cameras and rare models of cameras. While in smartphones and action cameras, this characteristic is, to put it mildly, pushed into the far corner. As for the sensitivity, the laws of optics are already working here, which cannot be jumped over: the larger the hole diameter, the more registered photons fall on the matrix. Well, a large hole diameter can only be in large-sized equIPment, this is understandable without explanation.
All these dependencies are quite obvious and allow you to draw a simple scheme for choosing a device depending on priorities.
But first of all, the division of recording devices into classes is justified by NOT x optics, matrices and functions. And what is commonly called a form factor, a design. Why did we put this sign. it would seem a key one. in second place after quality? Yes, because high-quality advice can easily endure the inconvenience of an unsuccessful form factor.
It’s hard to think of a more awkward form factor for shooting than a smartphone or tablet. Holding the device at eye level with your spread fingers is not only ridiculous, but also inconvenient. Not far from smartphones for ease of holding are cameras with their rectangular bodies, as well as action cameras that have a traditional shape, denoted by the word brick. It is good if the camera has a flIP or tilt display, which can be returned to the operator’s eyes. This feature greatly increases the choice of angles from which you can shoot. Holding the camera in your hands. As for the cameras. most of today’s amateur camcorders have the same design in the form of a standard tube with a grIP on the right side. This form is much more convenient than all tablets and cameras combined, but it also has one significant drawback. it does not really fit the design of the human palm.
It’s a pity, but manufacturers have stopped releasing cameras with a design that would meet the concept of grIP comfort. There are excellent examples. pistol grIP cameras from Sanyo, Sony and Panasonic.
Striking with nostaLGia, the place will remember a couple of unusual solutions from Samsung: cameras with a lens directed upward, and a camera with a handle that rotates 180 degrees. Perfect solution, by the way. And it is not surprising that this company has always been distinguished by an extraordinary design approach.
If the raised lens seems to be nothing more than a funny experiment, then the rotary handle can be seen now only in top-class professional camcorders, in which it is hardly worth mentioning in this article. All these designs have long since sunk into oblivion, and some of them also together with the developers. For example, the Sanyo brand is taken over by Panasonic Corp., and Samsung has completely discontinued photography / technology, focusing on the notorious smartphones.
As such, hobby cameras now offer a single type of side-grIP design, which means shooting primarily at eye level. But what about the children? With this kind of shooting, only their tops will appear in the frame. And in general, the operator does not necessarily hold a camera equIPped with a large enough display near his face. This is illogical. Viewfinder disappears from cameras every year, remaining accessories, which are inherent only in expensive models.
By the way, in the viewfinder and the second personal belongings available in the cameras. These details can sometimes be decisive when choosing an apparatus. The unequal purpose and a large number of varieties of THESE attributes do not make it possible to systematize them, therefore they are all collected in the section of other characteristics.
This is for gourmets. The software of cameras is understood as their software filling, through which some rare functions are implemented. For example, high-speed shooting (an example of such shooting with the Leica SL (Typ 601) camera).
Or interval shooting (example of such shooting with the Panasonic HC-VXF990 camera).
Or such completely unique tools as, for example, an emphasis on the selected color directly during shooting (Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark II camera).
Such modes are rarely used, it’s true. over, many camera owners are not even aware of the existence of such modes in their equIPment. It’s a pity. Sometimes it’s a good idea to diversify a movie with an unusual shot. This should be remembered, and before buying it would be nice to inquire whether the camera also contains some other original software function.
Fantasy is capable of attracting a huge number of all kinds of functions into this category, but we took only the most, as they say, running, the most demanded. They do not affect quality. They are usually not directly related to camera design, although they may depend on it. For example, optical zoom (and we basically DO NOT consider digital zoom) can exist only in full-size equIPment. Exceptions here again are rare models of smartphones, which have a two- or three-fold zoom, insignificant by camera standards.
The real tourist or traveler needs at least 12x zoom. Better yet, 20x. Talking about such a multIPlicity, we automatically bring the conversation towards amateur compact cameras. No photo lens will have such a wide range of focal lengths (we are talking about interchangeable optics). Unless, of course, this lens costs like an airplane landing gear. And its mass will be comparable.
Optoelectronic systems of cameras have a different design, which makes it possible to create devices even with a 50x optical zoom. True, this requires a fine matrix. Which means the deterioration of other fundamental characteristics. resolution, sensitivity. This is the law: the higher the zoom ratio in the camera, the lower the quality. Therefore, chasing to the maximum is not always wise. Unless, of course, there is such a task in which the high-power zoom outweighs the quality.
Among the cameras particIPating in this comparison, the Panasonic HC-W580 has the maximum zoom ratio. The JVC GZ-R495 protected travel camera with its 40x zoom is a little behind it. But other devices, in which quality comes first, have a zoom with a maximum magnification of 20x.
And by the way, try not to pay attention to the inscrIPtions made on the camera bodies. These inscrIPtions, as a rule, have a fascinating function, nothing more. For example, the inscrIPtion 60x Zoom does NOT at all mean the presence of such a zoom ratio in the camera. Take a closer look: under this line there is probably a small explanation of Intelligent or Dynamic. And under the words 14 MegaPixels you will find a minor refinement of Still Pictures Recording. In general, the same laws work here, which prevail in the sale of any equIPment. And what a shame. these laws work! For example, thanks to such an inscrIPtion and their free interpretation, many buyers are sure that their TV shows a picture at 1000 frames per second. Although in fact, this figure has nothing to do with the refresh rate of the screen, but only denotes the flicker frequency of the backlight.
The term Resolution is NOT synonymous with the term resolution, no matter how many retailers of electronics retailers tell you otherwise. Resolution is just the number of dots (pixels) that make up a frame, a TV display, or a projector matrix. Unlike resolution, camera resolution is not expressed in dots or pixels. It is never listed in camera specifications (Official specifications should generally be treated with cool restraint). This parameter is most easily explained as follows: Resolution reflects the level of detail of the image that is formed by the camera.
Determining the exact resolution (size) of a frame is as easy as shelling pears. just look into the file properties. But finding out the resolution of a camera is much more difficult. The most accessible and visual way to determine the resolution of a camera is visual. This is done by shooting a special test table, after which the resulting frame is studied. precisely, the study is focused on its areas in which these thin converging lines are located.
The areas where the lines start to stick together into a mess indicate the resolution of the apparatus. It is expressed in the number of TV lines. those very converging lines. that the camera is able to display individually. The following example shows a section of the table that says that this camera gives a resolution of about 900 TV lines on the horizontal side of the frame.
To give the reader an idea of the approximate level of resolution of modern cameras, let’s say 900 TV lines is a low, average figure for Full HD cameras. A high result for Full HD is 1000 or more TV lines, and for 4K. 1600 TV lines or higher.
Thus, there is no direct relationshIP between the size of the frame in pixels (its resolution) and the resolution of the camera. There is only an indirect connection, which is more likely a consequence: for example, no matter how high the detail is possessed by one or another camera, but a frame with a width of 1920 pixels physically cannot contain the same or more TV lines. They are, as a rule, less than pixels, two or more times. As proof, we present two most illustrative league.
These frames were taken with two different action cameras, which have almost the same design and give the same 4K (3840 × 2160). Despite this similarity, you can see striking differences in resolution. Which, in turn, are reflected in the degree of detail in ordinary shooting.
Despite the technological similarity of both devices, the difference in the shooting results is huge 1100 TV lines in the first camera versus 1700 in the second. This is explained by the fact that the first camera with its cheap optoelectronic system generates a 4K image from the banal Full HD. That is, in fact, there is a software increase in the frame size from 1920 × 1080 to 3840 × 2160. And a rather sloppy increase, with the introduction of high-speed aLGorithms to save processor time. By the way, the cost of this camera is several times lower than the second one, which is not surprising at all.
Yes, such a technological approach. Some developers can and should be called cheating. Although, if a buyer bought a gadget, being of the same mind and memory, being tempted by its affordable price, this is NOT a fraud, but a voluntary donation.
By the absence of deception and high quality, it pays a lot of money, unfortunately.
By the way, we have just studied shooting with miniature action cameras for example and dispelled another marketing fable that says that the resolution of a camera depends on the size of the matrix, optics, and generally on the design of the device. Again, this is not the case. It is quite a real situation when the camera of a good smartphone gives a more detailed picture than is obtained in another professional photo or camera. And nothing in this surprising comment. For example, some cameras form a frame by skIPping the deadline when scanning a sensor (there is such an address scanning technology that helps to increase the polling rate of a multi-megapixel matrix).
Let’s summarize: when choosing a camera, you need to remember that Resolution, or detail, does not depend on the design of the device. If the user wants to purchase a camera that is capable of capturing the smallest details, but doubts that a particular model has a high resolution, then there can be only one advice: find out its resolution on your own. Although this information is not published by the manufacturers, it is sometimes provided by the camera owner. You just need to look carefully for their publications in thematic forums, and it is highly desirable that these statements are confirmed by something more material. We are not able to track and test all produced photo / cameras in time, but we still have reviews of some of the most significant models of photo / equIPment.
To make this material practical, here are some examples of filming with different camera models. To reiterate, these examples are NOT a direct reference to specific patterns to be rigidly followed. For example, some models present in the comparison may NOT be produced by the manufacturer and may not be available for sale. Thus, these examples should be considered not as an unconditional recommendation to buy, but only as a guide.
Resolution Some cameras
Historically, Panasonic and Sony have been the leading resolution cameras. What is characteristic. a few years ago, Panasonic cameras had the highest resolution, this can be remembered by the regulars of digital
However, today these brands are beginning to catch up with other market particIPants who were previously in the shadows in terms of resolution: Canon and JVC.
Such a sharp picture ringing with details is ideal for capturing scenes with a large number of small contrasting objects. this is architecture, landscapes, etc. But shooting faces with such cameras, and even close-ups, threatens criticism from the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity, Who usually not happy with seeing their highly detailed wrinkles on the screen. Joke. But with a grain of truth.
Resolution Some cameras
Camera detailing in shooting strongly depends on the way the signal is taken from the sensor. For example, the old SLR cameras, which have just learned to shoot decent. They had the worst resolution due to the fact that their multi-megapixel sensors, intended for photography, were redundant for shooting, too slow and large. To increase the reading speed, the engineers used the address scanning princIPle, skIPping the period, which led to the appearance of Aliasing (pronounced steps at the edges of contrasting objects, colander effect) and strong moire. Recently, the situation has improved significantly, matrices have become faster, and in terms of resolution, cameras for the most part, if they lag behind cameras, then not much. But there are also obvious champions, giving details that are amazing even for cameras. Below are such good examples, these are Canon, Fujifilm and Nikon cameras.
Alas, the examples given do not include Sony cameras. these devices were NOT provided to us for testing for too long. However, judging by the previously studied models and information from numerous forums from unofficial testers, everything is great with detail in modern Sony cameras. At least not worse than in cameras of this brand.
Resolution Some Action Cameras
This is a sad picture. In the overwhelming majority of these action cameras, a camera pass is used when scanning the sensor, which leads to the appearance of THESE pronounced steps and, as a consequence, to a low resolution. Only two particIPants passed our test with dignity. these are cameras from Nikon and Yi Technology.
We add that the famous action brand GoPro has also produced and is releasing high-resolution cameras, except for some frankly unsuccessful. rather, experimental. models. For example, GoPro Hero4 Session.
To conclude the chapter on detail in shooting, we add an important clarification: so far only shooting in good lighting conditions was meant. Lack of light is another matter. These difficult conditions call for another important characteristic for cameras: high sensitivity.
Each reader, having stumbled upon the word quality, probably presented this definition in his own way. However, there is a fairly accurate list of features that determine the quality as a whole. Hereinafter, we will operate only with amateur concepts, since the standards of quality in filmmaking are completely different.
So, the quality of the amateur is determined by three main elements:
Other aspects, such as the correct color rendition or the width of the dynamic range, can be safely ignored at first (if some amateur does not agree with this, then congratulations: you are no longer an amateur).
- Criterias of choice
- Form factor
- Other characteristics
- Remote control
This material is intended for the average hobbyist who DOES NOT know where to start. For experienced amateurs, it will most likely be useless, although in relation to Some aspects, advanced users may nod once again, or ask a question.
First of all, you need to understand the theory, without which there is nowhere. Having mastered the main provisions, the reader will be able to highlight and indicate their own preferences, after which you can pay attention to specific models of cameras and cameras. These models are given not as strict recommendations for the acquisition and NOT with the aim of once again pushing the brands of the head, but only in order to set the direction of search. over, the cost of some products is a natural screening filter, since it is able to cool the ardor of the most ardent lover.
Speaking about the security of the camera, we mean such its design features, which make it possible to use the device in conditions of shock, heat or frost, high humidity, or generally under water. Such protection is achieved in two ways: by using Special boxes in which the camera is placed, or by the very design of the camera. The second seems to be more preferable, because the protected body of the camera itself frees you from carrying additional accessories.
An action camera, by definition, must be protected. Either in the form of an aqua box, or provided by the body design. The tightness is maintained here due to silicone gaskets on the lids, which provide access to service connectors and interfaces. At the same time, the camera housings have a reinforced structure to withstand water pressure at a depth.
But is there protection in a full-size camcorder or even a camera? It turns out that it happens. No camera can match the rugged JVC range that has been around since 2014. In addition to these devices, JVC developers have added a serious 4K camcorder this year, which has the same four-step protection against frost, dust, water and shock.
By the way, we did NOT make a reservation, said above in the protection in cameras. Let no one be global, but some models still have some protection. For example, the Panasonic DMC-FZ300 camera body protects electronics and optics from dust, rain and snow.
These rugged cameras are indispensable companions for a hike, picnic or vacation, or for shooting sports events. Also, these devices provide assistance to rescue and other services to record events and incidents in adverse conditions.
But the use of cameras in an EXTREME setting often implies separation from civilization. So, from an electrical outlet. What makes us remember one more important characteristic of cameras. about power consumption.
How to choose a camera for family filming!
Recently, cameras have become very popular with consumers because they allow you to immortalize the moments that were once important to your life and can give you the opportunity to see them again and again, whenever you want.
Cameras on the market can be analog or digital. Analog cameras have been very fashionable in recent decades, but over time, digital cameras have been invented, which has become the favorites.
Analog cameras use formats such as Betamax, VHS, 8mm, Hi8 and professional Beta SP. The disadvantage with analog cameras is that they lose their original resolution during the frame selection process, which also takes a long time. So, low resolution is the main disadvantage of an analog camera. However, an analog camera will provide a sleeker look than its digital counterpart, as many people still prefer using analog cameras.
Both digital and analog cameras are based on the use of light-sensitive chIPs known as CCDs to detect light in the scene being filmed. Analog cameras record analog information as voltage change. Digital cameras record information digitally.
The digital camera allows you to transfer recordings to your computer without degrading the quality and maintaining the same number of pixels.
Thanks to the technology that the digital camera possesses, you can easily edit, copy and paste frames or photos intos. Editing can be done using various GoPro software.
Digital recording also allows you to add comments and titles with a few simple mouse clicks.
Quality cameras Must have high resolution, so the more pixels per inch the better the recording. Most cameras available in the market with a single 680,000 pixel CCD display color filters for red, green and blue. However, high-tech cameras usually have a CCD for each of the above colors, providing the best possible image.
The format for digital cameras is usually. DV or Digital 8. However, there is no discernible difference between these two formats.
The second thing to consider when choosing a camera is the lens type. Lenses are essential for image quality. The best of them are said to be Carl Zeiss lenses.
If the camera has a built-in backlight. It is much better than the one that has an infrared emitter when it comes to night photography. Infrared emitters distort images captured in the dark and you will get greenish footage. Check out these features when deciding to buy your chosen camera.
We live in a very technological world. Many people are now ditching their old analog cameras and switching to digital cameras and digital cameras. Here are some tIPs to help you sort out your choice.
1. Decide if you want a camera that records on cassettes or discs Tapes and discs are just two formats that digital can be recorded on. Other digital recordings can be recorded on hard disk or memory card.
2. The number of pixels. Digital photographs are made up of hundreds of thousands of tiny points of light arranged in a grid. Each of the points is called a “picture element” or pixel. The higher the number of pixels, the clearer your images will be and the more realistic colors will be.
3. CCD Pixel information is reflected on the CCD with the lens. These chIPs come in various sizes. Most cameras have chIPs between 1/6-inch to 1/3-inch. The larger the CCD, the more light is taken from the image, resulting in vibrant photos with better colors.
4. Good Low Light Performance Since most home cameras are used indoors, it is important to find a camera that can perform well in low light conditions. The best models will not only have more automatic mode settings in the menu for shooting in dark conditions, but also allow you to manually set functions such as aperture and shutter speed to get more light into the camera.
5. Ability for good zoom (zoom, zoom) There are 2 types of zoom on a digital camera: digital and optical. Optical zoom is important because it preserves image clarity. And digital can spoil image quality when enlarged.
7. Synchronization. Each camera comes with a small number of jacks on the back to allow you to link the camera to a tape recorder or DVD for image transfer, or a computer for editing. Most of the nests are old fashioned. Red, white and yellow. If you plan on editing on a computer. Before viewing directly from a camera (or DVD player) on a TV screen, a Firewire (IEEE1394 interface) or USB 2.0 port is essential, because all modern computers have USB, but not all have an IEEE1394 port.
8. LCD Screen Most modern cameras actually come with LCD screens for viewing what you are shooting or for viewing what you have already shot. These screens drain batteries very quickly and can also be problematic when viewed in strong daylight, so it’s worth checking to see if the camera has a traditional viewfinder.
9. Pay attention to sound quality Unfortunately, most built-in microphones on digital cameras suffer from collecting and processing noise from the camera. If sound is important to you, check if you can connect an external microphone to the camera. Also look for a camera with a headphone jack to monitor what you are recording.
Leave your opinion and wishes to the article “How to choose a camera for family filming!”
Focus and flu
If the shutter speed depends on the aperture, then the latter is closely related to the FLOW. the depth of sharpness of the space.
FLU, therefore, depends on the focus. Depth of field is the range of distances where everything in the picture will be sharp. Being on the subject of shooting, the focusing point allows you to make the object itself as clear as possible, as well as all objects that are near the object.
Many newcomers to photography dream of becoming a professional portrait photographer, which most often uses subject focusing techniques. This is fairly easy to do, knowing how to set the camera to focus on one subject while leaving the background slightly blurred. It can be either automatic or manually adjusted, as well as the depth of field.
These functions are controlled by smoothly pressing the shutter release button, as well as by manually rotating the focusing ring located on the lens.
How does a digital camera work?
The main feature of a digital camera is that it needs to capture enough light to get a great photo. A digital camera works the same way. Illumination affects primarily the sharpness of the frame. the more light, the clearer the photo is.
The camera receives the necessary amount of light thanks to the aperture and shutter speed.
Thus, the light rays pass through the lenses into the camera, are reflected from the mirror and reach the pentaprism, which flIPs the image to its normal position. When you press the shutter button, the mirror retracts, the flaps open slightly so that the required amount of light falls directly on the matrix, and it, in turn, creates an image.
The digital camera sensor is the heart of the entire camera. Here its value depends on the number of details that it is able to catch in focus. Plus, a camera with a good sensor is capable of producing excellent images even in low light.
The diaphragm is located inside the lens and determines the size of the hole in which light enters, changing the amount of light entering the sensor. This is a kind of camera eye. By closing, it controls the light entering.
Aperture settings affect the sharpness of the frame and the smallest details that will fall into the picture.
If you need to highlight a certain subject, it is better to adjust the aperture settings to the minimum values, for example, F2.8 or F1.4. this will allow you to capture the smallest objects as clearly as possible, leaving the rest of the space blurred.
Aperture and shutter speed are closely related to each other. So, by changing the aperture value, the shutter speed will change along with it.
Using the aperture values F32, F16, F22 is necessary to get a picture in which all objects will be sharp, for example, for shooting nature, landscapes, architecture with a lot of small details and the second.
- Daylight landscapes are best captured with a half-closed aperture of approximately F8-F13. This will allow you to Get sharp pictures in which all objects will look great backlit and clear;
- At night, I photograph hand-held, the aperture must be opened as much as possible, increasing the ISO value;
- When shooting a specific subject, it makes sense to set the aperture values F3-F7 and increase it as the focal length increases.
Knowing how to properly set up the camera and choose the right exposure parameters, you can easily take shots in which all tones and halftones will be clearly visible, and the main subject of shooting will be bright enough.
ISO (also known as photosensitivity) refers to the sensitivity of the matrix to light rays falling on it. In other words, the higher the ISO setting, the brighter and lighter the photo will be when using the same exposure settings.
The maximum ISO is 12800 and is found on expensive professional devices.
High ISO performance gives the camera its best side, because by using higher ISO settings for night shooting, you can get great shots without flash and color noise appearing in the picture. Budget cameras have ISO operating parameters in the 400-800 range, making shots at dusk less clear and unusable.
Some ISO options:
- For shooting landscapes or for a studio with good light The ideal light sensitivity setting will be a minimum value of 1/100 (if a digital camera allows you to adjust the ISO even lower, then it is better to set the lowest value available)
- Cloudy weather or twilight, and also. ISO should be higher than 1/100, but you should not set too high values, since the picture may turn out to be noisy, and pictures taken with a flash indoors are not always good.
Exposure is the duration of the opening of the camera shutter, which regulates the required amount of light, which must fall on the camera matrix.
By changing the shutter speed, you can adjust the amount of light to get a picture of the desired brightness. If you are taking pictures manually or without using a trIPod, or if you are shooting indoors, ideally set the shutter speed to 1/60. 1/100. These settings in sufficient lighting conditions, for example, for shooting indoors, will help to create the clearest and sharpest shot.
Approximate shutter speeds in different situations, shooting different objects:
- At speed. 1/1000
- People are here 1/200 to 1/500
- Animals. that’s 1/500 to 1/800
- Water. 1/300 (excellent for shooting in motion. exposure duration 2-3 sec. Allows you to get the effect of a blurry flow of water with sharp static objects)
- Small details. 1/400 (suitable setting for product photography).
The most important rule when adjusting exposure parameters: the higher the speed, the shorter the exposure should be. It makes sense to use a slow shutter speed to create the effect of blurry objects in motion, and the camera settings for shooting in a studio are already somewhat different. here, with sufficient illumination, it is better to use a fast shutter speed.
Long shutter speeds are optimal, for example, when shooting the night landscape of a metropolis, for shooting in motion with blurry lights of passing cars, flame sparks, clouds and other objects. For the perfect shot, using a trIPod in combination with a slow shutter speed is recommended, positioned on a flat, hard surface.
Light falls on objects, it can give different shades. Lighting conditions can be both warm and cold, which is why there is such a thing as white balance.
This parameter is responsible for the accurate color rendition of the objects being photographed, and correctly set values allow you to Get a photo of rich shades without unnecessary halftones, which maximizes reality.
DSLRs EquIPped with an automatic white balance mode, which is used in the vast majority of cases. However, the technique will NOT adapt to real conditions and cannot possibly convey real lighting as the human eye sees it.
Most often, automatic white balance mode corrects the color in the bright side, and this can transform the image into a too faded picture. For example, warm daylight that predominates before noon may suddenly become too cold in a photo, and cool light suddenly turns out to be warmer than necessary. For a studio, sometimes it is required to adjust the camera taking into account the light and interior solutions of the selected location, so that the color rendition does NOT distort reality.
Outdoor camera settings assume the use of Special Daylight and Sunlight Modes. Thanks to these features, you can take better pictures than using the automatic mode when taking pictures in cloudy weather.
Digital cameras most often have the ability to adjust the white balance for specific shooting conditions: for an overcast day or shade. These parameters are able to add the missing warmth to the resulting photos.
To fully master this feature and adjust the white balance for the time and location you shoot, you need to experiment in different weather conditions. This will help you understand exactly how this mode works and how each value of white balance affects the resulting image in certain conditions.
You can control this parameter using the custom white balance mode, which will allow you to set its values in manual mode.
Basic camera settings
The joy of buying a new camera for the photography enthusiast is endless, especially for those who are serious about this hobby. However, soon a beginner may face the problem of setting up the camera, especially if a soap dish has been used before. Shooting in automatic mode, of course, allows you to make good shots, but in different conditions it is better to use the optimal settings, and the ability to use them correctly will save you from the questions of how to photograph indoors without a flash or shoot in difficult conditions.
Finding a camera for any professional level today is NOT difficult. the range of cameras is huge, however, they all work according to the same princIPle, you just need to know the basic settings of the camera in order to use them on your equIPment, and the instructions for the device are often not enough to find out how to set up the camera correctly.
- How does a digital camera work?
- Digital Photography Tools
- Focus and flu
- ISO matrix
- White balance
Digital Photography Tools
All modern digital photos and cameras for shooting have a number of settings located on the shooting mode dial.
In most cases, the modes are the same:
- A (A). fully automatic mode. This mode also includes all scene modes, which support cameras for all skill levels. Working in automatic mode, the camera independently adjusts to the shooting conditions and sets the required parameters, adjusting to a particular situation. Automatic mode is ideal for beginner photographers;
- P. semi-automatic mode with a choice of SEPARATE parameters. Setting the camera in this mode allows you to set some values at the discretion of the photographer. In this case, in automatic mode, the basic settings of the camera remain the same. Convenient for shooting both in the studio and in the open air.
- A (Av). Aperture priority mode. This mode is also called manual because it allows you to adjust the opening of the aperture. If a larger shutter opening is required, a smaller aperture should be selected. F / 1.4 is maximum, meaning full aperture is open. We adjust this indicator, you can control the amount of light passing through the optics.
- S (TV). shutter priority mode. This mode allows you to adjust the speed at which the shutter is released. It is measured in fractions of a second, for example, 1/100 sec, 1 sec, and so on. When shooting moving objects, it is better to choose a fast shutter speed, and in low light conditions this parameter should be increased, changing the focal length value together with it. Long exposure affects the amount of light that has time to get to the matrix, respectively, the longer it is, the more blurry and indistinct the picture will turn out. If you do not know how to take pictures indoors without a flash in this mode handheld, then in poor lighting you can Get a blurry frame;
- M. fully manual mode. In this mode, the photographer can independently choose each shooting parameter at his discretion, depending on the lighting conditions and other factors. Manual mode can be tricky for beginners, but over time all photographers shoot primarily in it.
The main thing is to choose the right mode based on the location and lighting, because the camera settings for shooting in the studio may differ from the street one, and so on.
There may be other modes, for example, scene mode for portraits, and mode for shooting.
The modes may be designated differently on different models of cameras, however, the princIPle of operation and settings for all cameras is the same, so it will NOT be difficult to set up an SLR camera from any manufacturer.
Modes can be changed by turning the main wheel, and manual adjustments can be made using the lever to switch from the viewfinder to the screen and vice versa, the button that changes the ISO, exposure and other functions.
Some cameras have a monochrome screen, which reflects all the parameters set.
The most important advice for newcomers to photography is to experiment and experiment again. In different modes, parameters and shooting conditions.
This is the only way, with even the basic knowledge of how to set up a DSLR or a camera for shooting, you can hone your skills and create really worthy shots.
Indoor photography for beginners
In the depths of the forums club.Foto.Ru discovered a wonderful post Sergei Chigarev. I can not resist not to quote it almost verbatim (just a little combed the grammar).
The original text of the post is located at http://club.Foto.ru/forum/view_topic.php?T. Age = 1 # listStart
Photographing wrestling in the gym
Let’s start with the main thing. From the task. If the task is a report from the venue of the competition or training, then the result should be printed photos or small previews for the club’s website. And in fact, and in another case, we are quite satisfied with the ISO800 sensitivity.
We look around and look for a light source. Most often these are small windows at a height and light from fluorescent lamps. And more often than not, the fate of fluorescent light is much greater. In any case, if there is at least some daylight, it should be used. If it is completely useless, then you just need to take it into account and DO NOT shoot in front of windows.
So, we found the shooting point, set ISO800. FLU is important, so it helps us out again diaphragm 4.
Now we are looking for someone in gray or green t-shirt. The particIPants themselves are not suitable because white kimonos are NOT suitable for determining exposure. If no one is there. Neither gray nor green. Then poke someone in the face with a light meter, in the end (in a good sense of the word :))
If the exposure meter shows something in the region of 1 / 60s. That’s not bad already. Not so good though. There are moments in wrestling sports, and they are just interesting in terms of logging, when particIPants freeze for a moment. Bows before the fight, the referee raising the winner’s hand In general, if you are in the subject, you probably know these points yourself. So they will save us from lack of light.
Another great help, if not a trIPod, then some kind of sports personal belongings such as a goat, a barrier for runners, well, etc., take a look around.
Well, if the measurements upset you and the exposure offered by the camera is 1 / 8-1 / 15, then only the dishonest way will help out. staging. After training, you go to the organizer and say: If you need photographs, then I ask the fighters to return to take pictures. The main thing here is not to screw it up, because everyone will be waiting for staged photos.
A trIPod or something to place or support the camera is required. Ask the coach to put the guys in the brightest positions, warn everyone that the shutter speed will be long. Loud Attention! and after a second, gently release the shutter. Extra duplicates will certainly not hurt. Be sure to bring people printed photographs, whatever they turn out, otherwise then no one will want to play with you in the theater.
Are you photographing a nursing baby
It is necessary to persuade the parents to move the crib or changing table to the window. If you are a parent yourself, then you don’t need to persuade anyone. The very fact of moving to something bright will surprise the baby and cause vivid emotions. Photos are expected of you, not highly artistic accentuation of the ear or eye. This is me about the FLU. High-aperture lenses are very good, but in our case the open apertures are 1.4. 1.8. 2.8 are of limited use.
I can already see how the last sentence is quoted and stunning images at 1.2 aperture are attached. 🙂 Therefore, let me remind you that we have a circle for beginners here, and our goal is technically perfect pictures.
So our working diaphragm 4. We put the camera in aperture priority mode. Set the aperture value to 4. Sensitivity to start. ISO400.
We make the first measurement in the child’s face. To do this, brings the camera as close to the baby’s face as possible and, without waiting for the autofocus to grab, we look at the shutter speed suggested by the camera. Well, what is there? If the camera’s light meter offers you something like 1 / 60s-1 / 125s, then you’re fine. (In order not to lie, I went to the window: today is a cloudy day, with ISO400 and aperture 4, the exposure meter determines 1 / 80s).
Now a very important point. We transfer the camera to manual mode M and manually set the fixed shutter speed and aperture. 1/80 and 4, respectively. Do not forget to check. ISO 400.
First of all, this is necessary so that neither you nor the exposure meter (after all, in the background. A dark room) are not distracted during shooting. Over time, with your brain, you will come to the point that autofocus is also not needed for shooting, because. He often clings to the wrong place, and most importantly, he steals time And unique moments go away.
But for now, shoot with autofocus! over, many went to Yandex to find out. What the hell is this autofocus.
At first glance, this is a useless undertaking with a reflector, only a little light adds to it.However, when viewing pictures, its benefits are hard to miss hard.
So, the children were removed. Now the next example.
Indoor photography for beginners
Shooting indoors is always pretty individual.
Some want to beautifully remove a child up to a year, and the rest. Gym wrestling.
With all the variety of tasks, I will take responsibility to split them into two groups: with a flash and without. I’ll make a reservation right away that hereinafter there is a flash. it external electronic flash attached to the camera.
Let’s start with the case when there are flares.
This case will probably be the most frequent, therefore we will consider it in more detail. There may be no flash for various reasons. You feel sorry for the money for it, you forgot the flash at home, the batteries are dead in the flash, etc.
First of all, we inspect the shooting location. The camera’s light meter, and with the advent of experience and eyes, allows you to determine, where does the light come from. There are not many options here either. either a window or lamps. In fact, both the one and the other option borders on reality. Therefore, we will, as they say, get out of the situation. Most often, you don’t have to rely on lamps. unless they are, of course, special illuminators. The best we can squeeze out of artificial lighting is backlighting. It is undesirable to illuminate the plot important part with lamps and daylight from the window at the same time. If the subject can be moved in any way closer to the window, then you need to do it to the maximum.
I will immediately simulate real situations.
I’ll start abruptly. Indoors it is RECOMMENDED to shoot with flash.
Again, I make a reservation for the clever ones that we have a beginner circle!
Indoors there is usually an acute lack of light, and the flash helps out. Flash units are different for everyone, I won’t tell you how to use each model directly, but I will send it to the instructions.
I’ll tell you about flash photography in the form of useful tIPs.
DO NOT puff on the forehead. Forgiveness to this method. only in cases when the object is further 6-8 meters. And then, puffing on the forehead in this case, we force the flash to squeeze out all its power. Everyone is familiar with the problems that arise with a flash on the forehead. bold highlights on the face, terrible shadows, red eyes. We see all this in the pictures with a soap dish. NOT turning your DSLR into a soap dish. That is why you need to use the built-in flash in very rare cases.
With low (3m) whites! The best solution for ceilings for family and household plots would be a flash up. Walls as reflectors, of course, are also interesting.But they are rarely white and will definitely contribute to the distortion of the color balance of the photo.
If you have an E-TTL type automatic flash, you might well hope to be automatic. When shooting indoors, be bold: shutter speed 1/200, aperture depending on your idea, if the flash is powerful, then ISO100, all this in manual mode M. And you don’t need anything in the green zone, and modes with priorities!
An example from real shooting.
Task. children in the room, evening, there is light from the window.
We set: ISO100, aperture 5.6 (since it is problematic to drive children into a small flu), shutter speed 1 / 200s. The flash is aimed at the white ceiling. Center-weighted metering. ALL.
The only thing to remember is to keep the camera level even if you choose the angle from above. Children on the floor, flash head reorient to the ceiling.
In general, an ordinary amateur understands a flash pretty quickly. And there are few questions on this topic. Try it and it will work out!