Creating a simple program
The term “algorithm”, first used in modern meaning. Leibnic (1646-1716), is a laminated form of the name of the Great Persian Mathematics Mohammedin Bin Mousse Al-Khorezmi (OK. 783. OK. 850). His book “On Indian Account” in the XII in. was translated into Latin and enjoyed a wide popularity of not one century. The name of the author Europeans pronounced as Algorithm (Algorithmi), and over time they began to call the entire system of decimal arithmetic in Europe.
Scientific definition of the algorithm gave a. Church in 1930. Nowadays the concept of the algorithm is one of the fundamental concepts of computing mathematics and computer science.
The algorithm is an exact and complete description of the sequence of actions on specified objects, allowing to obtain the final result.
It can be said that the algorithm for solving any problem is a sequence of implementation steps (or finding) of this solution, and the constructing process of the algorithm (algorithmization) is the decomposition of the task for elementary actions or operations.
Mathematics region known as Theory of algorithm, It is devoted to the study of properties, recording methods, the scope of various algorithms, as well as the creation of new algorithms. The theory of algorithms is widely used in various fields of human activity. in technique, production, medicine, education, and T. D. The appearance of a computer made it possible to solve extremely complex, labor-intensive tasks.
The definition of an algorithm for use in the field of computer science needs some refinement. First, the solution of tasks in computer science is always associated with the transformation of information, and therefore the initial data and the result of the work of the algorithm should be information. This can be represented as a scheme.
Secondly, algorithms in computer science are designed to implement in the form of computer programs or to create some computer technology. To perform the algorithm requires the final amount of RAM and a finite time.
Basic requirements for algorithms:
Discreteness (interrupt): The algorithm must submit a solution to the problem in the form of a sequence of simple (or previously defined) stages (steps). Each step of the algorithm is formulated as instructions (commands).
Non-definition (deterministicb; lat. Determinate. certainty, accuracy): steps (operations) of the algorithm must allow a unambiguous interpretation and be clear to the artist algorithm. This property indicates that any action in the algorithm should be strictly defined and described for each case.
Massiness: The algorithm must decide not only for a specific set of values, and for a whole class of tasks, which is determined by the range of possible source data (algorithm applicability range). The properties of mass implies the use of variables as the initial data of the algorithm.
Performance: The algorithm must give a specific result, t. E. All possible situations should be considered and the result is obtained for each of them. The result may also be a message that the task of the solution does not have.
Limb: The number of steps of the algorithm must be finite.
Efficiency: The number of steps and the steps of the algorithm must be such that the solution can be found for the final and, more acceptable time.
For evaluation and comparison of algorithms there are many criteria. Often Analysis of the algorithm (or, as they say, Analysis of the complexity of the algorithm) It consists in assessing the time costs for solving the problem depending on the amount of source data. The terms “temporary complexity”, “labor-intensity” of the algorithm. In fact, this assessment is reduced to counting the number of basic operations in the algorithm, since each of them is performed for the previously known final time. In addition to temporary complexity, the capacitive complexity should also be estimated. E. Increase memory costs depending on the size of the source data. Evaluation of complexity gives a quantitative criterion to compare algorithms designed to solve the same task. The optimal (best) is considered an algorithm that cannot be significantly improved in terms of temporary and capacitive costs.
Analysis of the complexity of algorithms, research classes of tasks solved with the help of algorithms for one or another complexity, and many other theoretical issues are engaged in a special area of informatics.
Algorithms can be represented as some structures consisting of separate basic elements.
Logic structure Any algorithm can be represented by a combination of three basic structures:
- following. is formed from the sequence of actions following one after the other;
- branching (fork). provides depending on the results of the verification of the condition (yes or no) the choice of one of the alternative paths of the algorithm;
- The cycle. provides multiple performing a certain set of actions called Body cycle.
To describe algorithms, the following methods are most common (languages):
Normal language. The statement of the algorithm is carried out in the usual language with the separation of sequential steps.
Flowchart. Graphic image of the algorithm using special block icons.
Formal algorithmic languages (programming languages). When recording algorithms, a strictly defined set of characters and composed of special reserved words compiled. Have strict rules for building language structures.
Pseudocode. Synthesis of algorithmic and ordinary languages. Elements of some basic algorithmic language are used for strict record of the basic structures of the algorithm.
Sliver method (recording in the usual language) is not widespread, t. to. There are several disadvantages such descriptions:
- strictly not formalizable;
- quite verbose;
- may allow the ambiguity of interpretation of individual prescriptions;
- Complex challenges with the analysis of conditions, with repeated actions, are difficult to seek in verbal or verbal formula.
Knowledge to create programs in Windows
There is no magic programming language to create programs for Windows. From Microsoft in the operating system, we can perform almost any programming language if we have an appropriate compiler and interpreter.
However, there are several programming languages that prevail in this operating system, and, as a rule, these are Microsoft languages. For example, most graphic programs developed for Windows use visual languages such as Visual C. Visual C #, Visual J # and Visual Basic.Net.
If we are going to create a simpler program that does not need an inteeis, c excellent option. Even C If we want to use any of the graphic libraries available for this language. The difference between C and C is that the first is not object-oriented, as well as more limited than c today there are excellent projects written in this second language (Chrome, Firefox, many games and T. D.), so, without going into visual languages, it is very convenient to program on it.
If we want to create a program for Windows, but it also works in other operating systems, we must use other cross-platform programming languages. Java, for example, one of the most popular, because everything that we do in this language can work without problems in any operating system. Python, on the other hand, has recently been very popular similar language to create multiplatform programs.
It is also easy to find development in other languages, such as Object Pascal, Ruby or Objective-C.
How to create a computer program
Note: Creating a computer program requires knowledge of one or more programming languages, as well as some other things. On this page, I will express the common theses and plan the way for which you have to go from the idea to incarnation. Step-by-step instructions will not be, but some specific stages will indicate.
The main goal of creating any computer program is to make the car do what the person wants. In essence, the program is a set of instructions, performing which the computer makes the necessary actions or gives the result. That is why it is often used by the phrase “write a program”, and not to create it. Do not think that it is very difficult to create computer programs. it is not. But you need at least to spend some time on training.
Anyone who is interested in software development, such as programs, games or online services, should start with learning a programming language. There are many different languages, and the creation of a new program requires time for training and more information than this page can provide.
Therefore, this article is intended for a general review to indicate you how to start work. An important initial step is to develop a plan for which program you want to develop. For example, the plan will include the purpose of the application, games or services and the functions you want to include. Develop a plan and determine the goals.
As I have already noted above, there are many different programming languages. The choice of language for study may be a problem by itself. Creating a program with a large number of functions often requires sufficient possession of one or more programming languages.
At the same time, the basic understanding of the concepts of almost any programming language can help you get started. List of programming languages includes examples of various types of software that can create every language.
For example, one of the first programming languages that I began to learn was Java. Because using it, it was possible to create mobile programs. on J2ME. Now J2ME is no longer so relevant, since the market flooded smartphones on Android and iPhones, but in order to create programs for Android, you also need to know Java.
In general terms, the selection of the programming language depends on the type of program or the script you want to create. For example, Visual Basic is popular because of its relative ease. Programming Basics can be studied using Pascal.
Other popular languages. C, C and C # are used to create games, applications, drivers, operating systems, as well as many programs that run on the computer. Java and QT toolkit will suit the goal of creating cross-platform software not only for Windows, but also Linux, Mac.
Selection Editor and Programming Environment
Editor. This is any program that allows you to write a computer code. They vary from simple (like any basic text editor) to advanced software, such as Adobe Dreamweaver, Eclipse, Jdeveloper, Sharpdevelop or Microsoft Visual Studio. Fortunately, any program can be written in a text editor, which means that you can start free. As you become clearer to programming language, it is recommended to use a more advanced editor, because it can make encoding and testing code more efficient.
For Windows users, I offer NotePad editor. Because it is free and supports syntax highlighting. If you are on Mac, you can use their free editor called TexTedit. In addition, it should be borne in mind that in the development environments there are built-in editors.
Most programming languages are highly level programming languages, which means that they are easy to understand, but it is impossible to understand the computer. To “read” your program to your program, it must be compiled or have an interpreter. Your programming language is a decisive factor in whether you need a third-party program for compiling or interpretation.
- Swing and install the compiler or development environment.
- We find information on the network or in language learning books.
- Create the first program.
- Run it on your computer.
I have long been creating programs. I started with the “Electronics of James”, programmed on Basic. Since progress, so I have advanced a little: gradually mastered Java, C, C #, PHP, work with various frameworks and CMS. You can always order the development of the program I have. low prices, extensive experience, high speed and guaranteed quality.
Installation of the development environment
Since most of us are not brilliant boys and girls who born with a keyboard in their hands and did not absorb programming languages with Mother’s milk, we need a text editor more functional and visual than notepad.
Yes, it is quite realistic to create a program in a notebook, but you will have much more time to do with such perversions. For the other Microsoft Visual Studio, it is the tool that will help create new and manage existing projects.
From the key capabilities of Visual Studio I want to note:
- Development for popular Windows platforms, Linux, MacOS
- Visual editing of user intees
- IntelliSense is an interctival assistant when writing code
- Managing version. Integration with Github
- Joint Development
- Expanding opportunities by installing add-ons.
So Microsoft Visual Studio is exactly what it is worth starting his programmer career.
Note. Earlier, when Visual Studio was not free, as an alternative was to consider Sharpdevelop, a free open source IDE, which provided the functional with Visual Studio and in some cases it was enough to create projects of any complexity. But now, in mind the stagnation of the process of developing Sharpdevelop, and the rapid development of Visual Studio, alternative to the product from Microsoft is simply no.
Download and install the latest version that is available for download on the developer website. This should not have difficulties. After installation, run the development environment.
How to write a computer program
Theory of errors is to a funny brief introduction to programming. All major and secondary positions of the theory are tested by the author in practice and on colleagues, for which some thanks to their widows and orphans.
Epigraph: “Errors are also inexhaustible as the atom” is attributed to Karl Marx and its accomplices
Axiom. There are errors in any program. Corollary 1. In a program consisting of one operator, there are errors. Corollary 2. In a program consisting of N operators, there are at least N errors. Corollary 3. In a program consisting of one operator, there are at least N errors. Corollary 4. Any program contains an infinite number of errors. Corollary 5. To learn infinity, you need to be not a philosopher, but a programmer.
The law of the relationship of programs and errors. In order to get mistakes, you need to write a program. In order to get a program, you need to try to avoid mistakes. Corollary. Whatever you do. You will only have errors.
Program reversibility theorem and errors. You can always come up with a program in which there will be at least N errors. And vice versa, you can always come up with an error that is not less than in n programs.
Law of proportionality. The more the program is needed, the more errors in it and vice versa. Corollary 1. A completely unnecessary error program does not contain. Corollary 2. Unnecessary program can not be created for any money.
Rule ambiguity program. Even two absolutely identical programs contain different errors. Folk sign. How many programmers. So many programs. Observations of the system administrator. How many programs. so much wrong results.
Fundamental law theory of errors. On errors learn. Corollary 1. The programmer who wrote a program becomes scientist. Corollary 2. The more the programmer makes mistakes, the faster it becomes a scientist. Corollary 3. A truly scientist programmer never writes proper programs. Comment. On that he and scientist.
Specifying novice programmer. If you managed to write a program from the first time, in which the compiler did not find a single error, report this system programmer. It will correct the bugs in the compiler.
Observing system programmer. If the novice programmer wrote a program that immediately earned, it means it consists only of Комментарии и мнения владельцев.
The law of the facilities of errors. Programmer can detect an error only in someone else’s program or not to detect anywhere. Corollary 1. The administrator cannot detect an error. Corollary 2. The error is not all the same who will detect it. Corollary 3. Individual programmer activities are impossible.
The law of inviolability of errors. An error can be observed, but it is impossible to fix.
Theorem. Correction of an obvious error turns it into a non-obvious (inaccessible to observation), and this process is irreversible. Corollary 1. Any active action designed to improve the program worsens the program. Corollary 2. Passive observation improves program. Corollary 3. The more in the program of obvious errors, the more accurately you can predict the result of its work. Comment. Program without obvious errors. inoperable. Corollary 4. Program is easier to write anew how to fix.
Programmer’s public utility law. Each man on Earth must be a programmer.
Board novice programmer. Never correct the errors found, because it will entail the appearance of an unknown number of unsuid. Better describe them in the accompanying documentation as a feature of the program.
Memo programmer. 1) should not be divided by obvious errors on permanent and endangered, and you should share them on the previously discovered, previously discovered and forgotten, and new, which are usually well forgotten old. 2) Object Programming. Reliable tool for writing unnoticed errors.
The law of the impossibility of making an error. Get the desired error artificially impossible. Proof: Programming the desired error, you allow a different error, in the root changing an extensive intention. Corollary. Programming with the necessary errors. art.
Theorem on the impossibility of evidence of the correctness of programs. It is impossible to prove that the program does not have mistakes. Doc: Do not need to prove that there are errors in the program.
Definition. Computer virus. Little Living Error, which, as a result of mutation, legs and mouth appeared.
The Law of Hippocrata. A real programmer who gave a creep of a hippocracy will not torment a computer virus. He either prevent the view that he did not recognize it, or imperceptibly for others quickly will pass it into his computer.
Computer programming. Environment
Although the setting of the environment is not an element of any programming language, this is the first step that needs to be performed before writing the program.
When we say “Wednesday Setup”, it simply implies the foundation on which we can program. Thus, we need the necessary software configuration, T.E. Installation on our PC, which will be used to write computer programs, their compilation and execution. For example, if you need to view the Internet, you will need the following setting on your computer.
If you are a PC user, then you will learn the next screen shot, which we took from Internet Explorer when watching TutorialSpoint.com.
Similarly, you need the following setting to start programming using any programming language.
- Text editor to create computer programs.
- Compiler for compiling programs in binary format.
- Translator to directly execute programs.
If you do not have sufficient access to computers, you will not be able to install none of these programs. Therefore, we suggest you to seek help to any technician to set up programming environment on your computer, where can you start. But it is important for you to understand what kind of items.
Stay legal: how to write a program for Windows, without spending a penny
So our country has renounced the fight against computer piracy, which punishing everyone without parsing. Of course, this does not mean that it is urgently to rub the whole pirate software from home archives (fortunately, while the law enforcement agencies are not satisfied with the quarterly details in order to identify unlicensed software). But there are single programmers who produce their programs to light, you need to seriously worry that their programs are made with the legislation.
For the average, small-scale, read. Home, Programmer is not possible to purchase such monsters such as Visual C, Borland Delphi. Yes, and to create a really beautiful design of an inteeis program (icons, pictures, sounds and animation), you will need another bunch of money on Photoshop, Corel.
The average income of an honest person in our country is very small, and students. and that less. And the software is very expensive. How to be, you ask? Output one. You need to use free development tools, free file formats. Fortunately, this kind is not only under Linux, but also under Windows.
Taking into account the foregoing, we formulate the task: write an application for the Windows operating system, which has the following qualities. reliability, speed of work, relatively small size distribution, work without third-party libraries, necessarily the presence of a beautiful and convenient graphic intees, naturally, without violating the law and not spending a penny.
If you throw out compilers / interpreters such as Java, PHP, Perl, as well as Visual Basic (which is relatively low in our country) and other single-or-fledged programmer heresy, at our disposal are the following free universal computer software development tools for Windows operating system:
- Visual C Express Edition;
- C Builder Turbo Edition;
- Pelles C for Windows;
- Ports with Linux type GCC, LCC and other ss;
- Borland Delphi Turbo Edition;
- Compiler Wanderer “Module-Si-Pascal” (Supports three languages at once, Pascal, Module). By the way, developed by our compatriot.
We will analyze the disadvantages and advantages of each of the presented development tools, as well as define how suitable they are suitable for solving our tasks.
About a year ago in the company Melkosoft something happened. The great giants of thought and lovers of the dysfold of a long dollar from the of gullible users decided to go to mercy and gave us a free version of their famous “visual studio”, although a little bit and cut, but still working and impressive, and wearing a name Visual C Express Edition. Briefly see than this gesture / tin (need to emphasize) goodwill will help the simple Russian encoder. This compiler is free for both the home and family and for more global distribution. How much that’s just much of you will be limited to creating console prog under Windows 98? The thing is that the melkosophorts, see, by misunderstanding, and maybe for evil intent, all header files related to visual programming were thrown out of the expression distribution. But they gave us their new library of the CLR visual programming library, which is suspiciously similar to the infusable VCL. But the whole trouble is that CLR requires its work.NET, which weighs 300 meters distributing. Agree to carry 300 meters in order to earn a program weighing 10 meters. these are too big respect for the melkosoft. Total: Troychka. just for a bold step.
Consider another heavyweight FRONT. Imagine that programming on si simplified in N-O. Speak can not? Maybe :). In confirmation of this, pay your attention on C Builder Turbo Edition. But about this compiler opinion of the public to radically diverge. On the one hand, the key language of development is the SI (which cannot but please the adherents of this language) and visual convenience are at the highest level, and on the other. there is a reason to unleash the Holywar. Bilder is written on Delphi, and on the other. you can quickly Bill a cool inteeis from the program, and before comrade, they brag it that the type on s is written :). Outcome: in principle, it will suit, but the fact that the insides are written on Delfay, still does not give me rest
Pelles C For Windows. good free development tool. It can be said that this is “free visual SI” because all settings and intees almost coincide. Can compile Native. There is a built-in editor and resource compiler. Just a sense of this, visuality is no more than in Visual C Express Edition, but write a complex program in such conditions. it is possible to retire to retirement. Outcome: Life is short, you need to write quickly and efficiently. I’m afraid we will not have time.
Consider guest gifts with a “other universe”. Ports with Linux type GCC, LCC and other CC. visuality zero, convenience is the same as the previous compiler, in addition LCC turned out to be small, and to ride the GCC from the site and make it work, you need to be academic. Outcome: do not take.
Borland Delphi Turbo Edition is free, there is a resource editor, allows you to write programs for Windows 32, which do not require any additional libraries. But there are also its cons. no command line compiler (in principle, not a lot of loss), over time, clogs the memory and, most unpleasant, for its work, the Turbo Wednesday requires the DOTNET installed. Outcome: Suitable
Compiler Wanderer “Module-Si-Pascal”. Domestic development, promising compiler, but minuses are the same as Pelles C for Windows. Extremely low visuality. Outcome: Patriotically, but not profitable. Do not take.
Graphics and sound out of law. unfortunately or fortunately, Dovovsky times ended, the era of programs with the visuality and color of the inteeis came. Pictures, icons, animation and other tinsel, which is very convenient to hide the overall mission of the program. Even at the time of Posa, the primitive, according to today’s standards, the schedule was made in special programs. Ascii editors. To create beautiful icons, pictures perfectly fits Adobe Photoshop, but it does not afford to to honest worker firm front. We will look for an alternative. And find it in the mill of porticated graphic editors from Linux, namely GIMP. Simple, a bit uncomfortable after pirate photoshop, but you can get used to. And what about the sound, you ask? Modern user spoiled and not today. Tomorrow will want the program to respond to each effect by voice. How to do it? Wavelab, Soundforge and Adobe Audition require fees for their capabilities. For happiness, there is a sound editor Audacity, written by graduate student Dominica Marty from the University of Carnegie Mallon.
Creating a project in Visual Studio
Open Visual Studio and on the start screen, select “Project Creating”.
In the next window, you need to select a console application (.NET CORE). This means that we will create a command line application in C #.
In the next window, set the name of the project. Let be HelloWorld. At this stage, you can also specify the folder where the project will be located. After that click the “Create” button.
Visual Studio will create and open the project. The window will look like this:
In our editor in the center there is a default code C #. Subsequently, we will change it to your. On the left is the browser solutions in which you can see the structure of our project. In this case, the default structure was generated in the browser. The “Dependency” node contains assemblies that are added to the default project. library classes.NET that will use C #. However, not always all assemblies are needed. Excess content from here then you can delete. Or, on the contrary, add some kind of desired library. it will be placed in this node.
Programs for creating programs on a computer
If you have ideas for creating applications and you are looking for a software that is able to implement the conceived, our selection presents the most common utilities for software development are represented. Some contain a professional set of tools requiring knowledge of programming languages. Others. allow you to quickly master the whole functionality even inexperienced users to create the first simple program without the need for long-term training.
You can create software for Windows operating systems, Linux, Mac OS and mobile devices running Android and iOS. A collaborative work on one project from different computers in real time is available.
- A large number of functions;
- The presence of a debugger for js;
- Support for multiple monitors;
- Using split windows XML and CSS;
- Convenient adjustment of the workspace;
- Advanced Designer and Code Editor;
- Simple and intuitive inteeis in Russian;
- The ability to develop graphic elements of Windows Forms;
- Regular auto updations from the official Microsoft website.
Intellij IDEA. is distinguished by the presence of the most powerful tools for creating commercial, mobile and web applications. Gets regular updates from the developers website. There is in its arsenal useful tools for analyzing the quality and autodipal code.
The list of compatible languages includes: JS, Java, HTML, Groovy, CSS, XML, ActionScript, Scala, CoffeeScript, Perl5, Erlang, Fantom, Lua, Ocaml, GLSL, Haskell and many others. There is support for such applications such as WebLogic, Virgo, Glassfish, WebSphere, Tomcat, Tomee, Jboss, Resin, Jetty, Geronimo. Work with databases and SQL files is available.
- Remote access to your projects;
- Built-in inteeis designer for swing;
- Professional development of Android applications;
- Allows you to create a program and test it;
- Convenient tips for parameter names and types of values;
- Support for all the latest technologies and frameworks Java;
- Preview function in the pop-up window;
- Works with modern Windows platforms, Android, iOS and T.D.
- Integration with Control Systems Perforce, Git, Team Foundation Server, Subversion, CSV, Clearcase, Visual SourceSafe, Mercurial.
Hiasm. modern application designer with rich set of functions. You can easily and quickly make a program, even without a high level of knowledge of certain languages. Using software does not cause complaints. There is a Russian-speaking localization and a convenient prompt.
You will open an extensive library of components that can be connected to each other in whole designs and schemes. Available Embedding graphic elements and sounds. The standard functionality of the utility can be expanded by connecting modules and packages, respectively, you will have the ability to create your own applications for almost any OS. Work is on the principle of object-oriented programming.
Pay attention to the online version of Hion, with which you can collect schemes directly in the browser, including from different smartphones and tablets. Available repost of workflow screenshots into popular social networks.
Key advantages of the HiaSM program:
- Convenient controls;
- Allows you to create a game in 2D and 3D;
- The function of collective work on the project;
- Sending your email schemes;
- Quality visual programming environment;
- Available drawing of own GUI elements;
- The ability to expand by installing additional packages;
- A wide selection of forms, colors and styles for the intees of the developed software.
Game Editor. a free program for creating games and applications to various platforms, including Windows, Linux, as well as Handheld PC, PC / Windows Mobile. However, to start ready-made projects on PC, you will need a Java Runtime Library Environment.
During the development process, you can use a set of different game objects, each of them can be asked for behavior that will depend on one or another event. It is worth noting the built-in library containing all sorts of animations, textures and models. You can add graphic elements and music in OGG Vorbis, WAV, MID, MOD, S3M, IT and XM formats to our projects.
Small disadvantage of the utility, is an inteeis in English. On the other side. There is a convenient tip, understandable even a beginner. In addition, the free version of software will not require special knowledge to develop scripts or program codes. For those who have script skills and wishes to sell their projects in online markets, there is an Express version for 99.
- Extremely simple menu;
- Allows you to create games in 2D;
- Has an open source;
- The ability to edit the behavior of objects;
- The latest version works with high resolution screens;
- Fast compilation of the same project for different devices;
- Adding Files in JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP, XPM, TIFF, PCX, XCF, TGA.
Arduino IDE will allow you to develop a program for controlling automatic devices, such as: LEDs, relays, microcontrollers or electric motors. Contains export, saving, search and replacement of sketches. There is an advanced compiler and a module for downloading new boards firmware.
Advantages of the free Arduino environment:
- Learning code in C;
- Availability of a convenient main menu;
- Developed means of firmware robotics and automation;
- High speed installation program (sketch) in devices;
- The ability to work with several projects at the same time;
- Full compatibility with any types of Arduino boards;
- Compatibility with MAX / MSP, Macromedia Flash, Supercollider, Pure Data;
- A large number of reference information and examples for newbies.