Video surveillance equipment
As a rule, a video surveillance system for a private house consists of several functional elements: cameras, a video recorder, a hard disk, the necessary cables for connecting cameras and a video recorder into one system. Also a necessary attribute of the system is a monitor for viewing images from cameras, or a computer with a connected video capture card. For comfortable viewing of images from multiple cameras, it is advisable to use a monitor with a good screen diagonal.
Necessary equipment for creating a video surveillance system
Often, the owners of country houses are not limited to only one video surveillance, but equip their house and plot with a full-fledged security system, including indoor and outdoor video surveillance, motion / noise sensors, light or sound alarms.
Cameras. To ensure surveillance over a large area, a large number of outdoor cameras will also be required, which are protected by a special dust- and moisture-proof housing. No protective housing is required for internal cameras. Usually, 8-16 video cameras are enough to monitor the entire perimeter of the site.
CCTV cameras for a private house are better to choose between IP and analog AHD, with high resolution, since they give a clearer and more detailed picture than the old analog ones. Cheap legacy analog systems will produce a blurry, hazy picture when both IP and AHD cameras are capable of delivering crisp images both day and night with IR illumination.
We will not dwell on cameras in detail, since we have a separate article on our website about what to look for when choosing cameras for video surveillance.
Coaxial cable with power cord
Cable. When choosing a cable for connecting analog cameras, coaxial cable is usually preferred, since it is capable of transmitting a video signal with the lowest possible loss. But at the same time, it becomes necessary to lay separate communications for power supply. However, this is solved by using a combined cable, which consists of a coaxial cable, and an additional wire for power supply. When connecting IP cameras, a UTP cable is used, similar to the one through which your computer is connected to the Internet.
Power supplies. Equipment for video surveillance systems is supplied with power using special blocks that come with the kit, one power supply (12V) can provide electricity for up to 4 cameras. When installing more cameras, it becomes necessary to use several power supplies.
In the case of outdoor installation of cameras, it is necessary to take care of additional weather protection of the PSU itself by placing it in a sealed casing (outdoor cameras, as a rule, already have a protective case).
Video recorder. To connect a large number of cameras, you will need a multi-channel video recorder. when buying, be sure to check with the seller how many cameras can be connected to the purchased model.
HDD. Also, when choosing equipment for video surveillance, it is imperative to purchase a hard drive for temporary storage of information from cameras. Choose a disk with a margin of, say, 1 TB of memory should be more than enough to record from 2 weeks to 1 month of continuous video from 2-4 cameras. Before installing a disk into the system, check it without fail for broken and reassigned sectors by connecting it to the computer.
There are ready-made video surveillance kits for home and summer cottages that save you from having to select all parts of the system separately. You can find out about them from this article on our website.
Selection and purchase of equipment
3.Do-it-yourself video surveillance system installation
After you have all the necessary equipment on hand, you can start installing the video surveillance system. First, you need to lay the cable from the cameras to the place where the DVR is permanently located. As mentioned above, we choose a coaxial combined wire or twisted pair, combined in one shell with power wires, and in the case of IP cameras, we set up power via a LAN (PoE) wire (in this case, the camera must support PoE technology), or separately.
Installing video surveillance in a private house means carefully hiding the cable from prying eyes and ensuring its protection from adverse influences by placing it in a special protective box. For concealment, we recommend laying the cable in a trench, before tightening it into a pipe for protection. If the cameras are located on the outer walls of the house, make the cable entry directly at their location.
When installing indoor video surveillance, you can hide wires behind false ceilings, plasterboard sheathing, or under skirting boards.
After laying the communications, distribute and mount the cameras along the perimeter of the site in accordance with the drawn up plan, and connect the cables to them. An example camera connection diagram is shown in the figure below.
In the following diagram, you can see the connection of the IP camera via a single power supply wire for PoE (Power of Ethernet) signal transmission.
Before connecting, be sure to read the instructions that come with the cameras, since each case is individual and has its own characteristics, or ask the seller to demonstrate the system’s performance before buying, remembering the connection sequence.
The DVR must be hidden in a safe place inside the house so that ill-wishers cannot find it.
So, the cameras have been installed, all the necessary communications have been connected, power has been applied, now it is necessary to configure the system. In order to set the desired viewing angle and the required area of video surveillance, at least two people will be required. one is located near the monitor, the other goes to adjust the cameras: at the command of the first, he focuses the lens, sets the focal length in the presence of a varifocal lens, and turns the cameras in the required direction.
Having dealt with the setting, and having obtained the desired result, we can proudly consider our own hands-on video surveillance for a private house. In addition to the fact that we gained new experience, we also saved a considerable amount of money, which can be used in the future to develop security functions, for example, to equip a full-fledged home video surveillance system, which includes various sensors of motion, light, noise, smoke, etc.d.
Drawing up a plan for the location of CCTV cameras
For example, we will talk about outdoor surveillance. Before purchasing a video surveillance system and starting work, it is necessary to draw up a detailed plan for the location of cameras on the site in order to identify the necessary areas for monitoring the site, and thereby already determine the number of cameras. This procedure must be carried out very carefully in order to avoid further non-visible (“blind”) areas of the territory.
To provide an overall view of the area, cameras with a short focal length and a wide angle of view are suitable, and to track a specific object, you need devices with a long focus lens. If you do not know what angle of view you need, and you plan to set the focal length manually immediately after installing the camera, and also, if necessary, adjust it, you need devices with a varifocal lens (for example, with focal lengths from 2.8 to 12 mm).
Also, make sure that the field of view of the camera lens is not further obstructed by various objects and objects (visors, trees, outbuildings). Thanks to these manipulations, you will also determine the required amount of cable to connect the system. As mentioned above, for analog surveillance purposes, it is better to purchase a combo cable (coaxial power cable).
If video surveillance for a private house with your own hands is carried out using IP cameras, then power can be supplied via the same UTP wire through which the signal passes: for this you need a power splitter, a splitter and an injector.
Alternatively, you can purchase wireless cameras, thereby saving on the purchase of a cable and saving yourself the hassle of laying it. However, this method has its drawbacks: in the presence of interference between cameras and the signal receiving device, or their considerable distance from each other (more than 200 m), additional equipment will be required in the form of a signal extender, and in some cases, the implementation of wireless video surveillance for the home will be completely impracticable task, especially when it comes to outdoor.
Video surveillance system for a private house
To ensure even greater security, as well as to save their own time and effort, many homeowners create a volumetric security system in their home, which, in addition to video surveillance, also includes an alarm system that notifies the owner remotely when there is movement in the frame, equip the house with smoke and noise sensors. opening the door, etc. But we are still talking about video surveillance, and now we will figure out how the video surveillance system for a private house functions when movement occurs in the field of view of the lens.
To implement high-quality motion recording, it is necessary to choose cameras with a high recording speed. 25-30 fps, otherwise the camera may not have time to react, for example, to a running person. But the opposite is also true. the camera can react to everything: flying birds, running cats, swaying trees, etc.
To avoid such moments, it is necessary to set up sensitive areas, in case of movement in which the camera will record information on the hard disk. This can be done in the program that comes with the video surveillance devices. we just paint over the areas in the frame that we do not need, and after that the camera will only react to movement in the areas that are not painted over.
Another interesting point is that most DVRs are equipped with inputs for connecting motion sensors and other warning devices, which we have already mentioned above. By connecting these funds, you can provide additional protection for your home and property by setting up, for example, sending alarms when sensors are triggered to a non-departmental security point, or to your mobile phone.
When implementing a video surveillance security system, it is possible to connect an alarm or a powerful searchlight to it, which can create the effect of the presence of the owners, scare and introduce an unprepared attacker into a stupor.
A full-fledged home video surveillance system with additional security means is a completely affordable option for ensuring the security of your home, and most importantly, all this can be done with your own hands if you have a strong desire and enough time. And if there is neither one nor the other, then you will have to seek help from specialists, even if in this case you will have to part with your hard-earned money, but the installation and configuration of the home video surveillance system will be done by professionals, taking into account the rich experience behind them, which will protect you from possible errors of self-installation, and, moreover, you do not have to put in any effort for this.
So, we told you about how video surveillance is implemented for a private house with your own hands, and the choice between self-installation or asking for help from specialists is, of course, up to you! We hope that the article will be useful for you, success.!
How to Select The Best Home Security Camera Coverage
The access control and management system makes it possible to close and open all exits, even doors, even gates, without automatically leaving the house. When combined with a video surveillance system, the system will record every person who has visited the site of your summer residence, any transport, as well as the time of the visit.
Advantages of Wireless CCTV Cameras
Small size, which makes it possible for their installation in any place of a summer residence or a country house. Such CCTV cameras can also be used for covert surveillance indoors, in this case, their small size allows them to be disguised as some kind of interior item.
What is also important, the absence of wires allows you to freely place the CCTV camera at any point of the protected object, moreover, it is impossible to disable or disable it by cutting the wires. Cameras operate autonomously, from rechargeable batteries or batteries, so they do not depend on power outages, possible accidents, they cannot be removed from their operating mode by disconnecting the power supply.
CCTV camera for a country house
Life in the city crowd and bustle of the megalopolis makes you increasingly think about a cozy and comfortable private house or summer cottage in a calm and quiet village outside the city. Of course, not everyone can afford such a luxury as a country house, but if you have a country property, even in the form of an old dacha, it requires care and attention, including in matters of security and safety.
Why do you need internal surveillance cameras in a country house?
A set of video surveillance cameras, located inside the premises in a country house, allows you to look after children or elderly relatives remaining at home. In case of any problems or emergency situations in the house, you can take the necessary measures in time: come, call an ambulance or ask someone close to provide the necessary assistance.
Also, with the help of internal video cameras, the work of servants or hired workers performing some work in the absence of the owners is usually monitored. Such a device will help to track how conscientiously the nanny, governess, maid or cook treat their work. In the event of a dispute or conflict situations, recording from a CCTV camera will also help resolve the conflict.
In addition, it is useful to install such cameras in a garage, boiler room, and other low-traffic areas, which also need to be monitored. This will help prevent a fire or notice the entry into the room in time.
Advantages of a home security camera
The farther from busy highways and curious neighbors your country house or dacha is, the greater the risk of unwanted visitors entering there. over, a city dweller often cannot afford to live in a country cottage all the time, life often requires a presence in the city, at work or on business trips. Therefore, you need to take care of the safety of your country house.
If the means and possibilities permit, it is possible to keep the guard. But in any case, in order to effectively ensure the safety of your property, you need to provide constant video surveillance of housing construction and the adjacent area. There are far fewer people wishing to enter a house under surveillance than into a structure that is unattended.
A set of CCTV cameras installed on your site will allow you to:
- Control the situation around the house and indoors;
- Capture all visitors, welcome and who appeared without an invitation and in the absence of the owners;
- It will allow you to take action in time if someone from outside or suspicious subjects will look closely at the location of the entrance to the house or dacha, the daily routine of the owners.
In addition to a set of video surveillance cameras, you can install an access control kit, with the help of which it will be impossible to get into the territory of your country house or summer cottage without your knowledge and permission.
What are the options for monitoring
If you are serious about your own safety, it is better to entrust the installation of a set of CCTV cameras to competent and trusted specialists so that Honor has all the nuances of the problem, cover all angles of observation around the house or summer cottage and protect the system from external damage.
Unlike a video surveillance camera in an apartment, which can be installed near the front door, for a country house or security in the country, it is necessary to monitor the entire site. One camera is not enough here. To cover a large area of the territory, it may be necessary to install from 10 to 20 CCTV cameras. This will allow you to control the territory along the entire perimeter of the boundaries of the site, as well as places near the entrance to the house, to the garage.
Modern video equipment comes in two varieties:
Experts believe that analog (wired) video equipment is out of date, being replaced by more advanced digital options.
Digital systems are computer and non-computer.
Non-computer video surveillance systems are reliable, do not require constant monitoring and the presence of maintenance personnel, and can work without outside interference. Such systems are more expensive than analogs working through a personal computer.
Sets of computer video surveillance systems include surveillance cameras, information from which is displayed on a computer. In addition to the basic function of video surveillance, such security systems have many more useful additions. One of them is a combination of video surveillance and electromagnetic locks, which only the owners of the house or summer cottage have access to.
A very useful and popular is the function of the host’s access to the video surveillance records via the Internet system. It seems interesting to install a set of motion sensors in places of possible penetration of unauthorized persons, when they are triggered, the video recording function on the camera is turned on.
According to the connection options, CCTV cameras are wired and wireless. Wireless systems are considered more advanced and easy to install.
Where are the surveillance cameras
Places that you must pay attention to when organizing video surveillance:
- Entry and entry points to the territory of the site, gates, gates;
- A fence or other fence, it is necessary to fully control all areas of possible penetration into the territory of a country house or summer cottage;
- Entry points to the house, to the garage, the area near the house and buildings located near it.
When arranging a set of outdoor video surveillance, you must pay attention to the fact that video cameras must be for outdoor placement. Such variants of models are equipped with casing heating elements, and are also hermetically protected from dust particles, condensation, and also from deliberate damage by local vandals.
If you use the option of wired technology in an outdoor video surveillance system, the video cable must also be protected from the influence of the external environment, from frost, moisture, and so on. You can purchase a brand of cable that provides for its use in outdoor video surveillance of the house and the adjacent area.
When installing a set of video surveillance equipment, it is necessary to take into account not only the angle of view, but also the height of the cameras, so that the image of the image is sufficiently clear. In this case, you can clearly see the faces of people passing through the territory of the site or are near it, distinguish between the license plates of the car, that is, if necessary, you can use the materials from the CCTV camera to search for persons who entered the territory of the site.
Necessary equipment for organizing a video surveillance system
The easiest way is to carry out the installation of video surveillance with your own hands in an apartment. Any PC user can handle this task. In this case, the amount of expenses will not exceed 12,000-17,000 rubles. The cost of installation and maintenance of equipment increases if the object of protection is a country house, temporarily abandoned housing or commercial real estate.
A self-assembled video surveillance kit includes several elements: cameras, network video recorder, server (computer), data storage, router (for wireless devices), cables (RF and electrical or twisted pair), power supplies and specialized software (the core of the video surveillance system. operating system, video analysis modules and integration with third-party software systems, etc.).
When installing a video surveillance system with your own hands in an apartment, you can do without a video recorder, using a regular computer as a server. In this case, it is enough to install a network camera and connect it to a PC or mobile device via Wi-Fi. Almost all Wi-Fi cameras of the Cube class (or cubic) are able to record information on flash cards, microSD and microSDHC memory cards. The cost of these devices varies:
- from 4,700 rubles (TBTec TBC-i4312IR, Optimus IP-H061.0W (2.8), ATIS AI-361 and AI-361, Space Technology ST-711, Hikvision DS-2CD2412, RVI IPC11S and IPC12S, Hiwatch DS-N241W, Beward CamDrive CD120 and CD110)
- up to 30,000 rubles (AXIS M1054, ACTi E11, E12 and E13, Hikvision DS-2CD2432F, Beward N520).
If the cameras will be connected wirelessly, you must use a router. For home use, the most budgetary option is suitable. Data storage is carried out on a hard drive or in a cloud service that does not require a static IP address. For example, in the Line system for 8,000 rubles a month you can rent a dedicated cloud server with preinstalled software, storage from 2 HDDs with a total volume of 1 TB, allowing the organization of a mirrored Raid1 array, a 100 Mbit / s communication channel and completely unlimited traffic, designed for 8 IP cameras. Obviously, with fewer cameras, this service will cost proportionally less.
When calculating the resources of a remote video surveillance system, it is recommended to proceed from 80–120 GB of disk space, focused on a 2-week archive, and 10 Mbit / s of a dedicated line for each installed IP camera.
Numerous modifications of video cameras for indoor and outdoor surveillance are presented on the market. Their average is 2000-5000 rubles for analog AHD / TVI / CVI-devices and 3500-13000 rubles. for IP-equipment. Many vendors offer ready-made kits for wired and wireless systems.. which ultimately significantly exceeds the cost of equipment purchased separately.
In addition, sellers often refer to wireless surveillance as a local network between cameras and a recording device, rather than direct connection of the cameras to the Internet. However, installing video surveillance with your own hands is not always an easy task, and for an insufficiently trained user, such kits can be the best solution.
In addition to open cameras, there are also hidden ones. miniature, camouflaged and secret. However, their use is regulated (not prohibited!) By Article 138.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. That is, on the territory of personal property, you can use them as you like, as long as someone else’s property does not fall into the lens. For use, for example, in an office or a sales area, you will have to obtain written consent from employees and notify visitors about the presence of covert video surveillance. Any video surveillance in toilets, changing rooms, etc. is strictly prohibited.
How to choose a CCTV camera?
To install video surveillance for a home (summer residence) with your own hands, you must first of all decide on the number of video cameras and their tasks (see Table 1).
Table 1. Selecting the camera resolution in accordance with the tasks of video surveillance
Minimum video camera resolution, pixel / meter
Surveillance surveillance, motion detection
Pixel per meter is a quotient of the horizontal resolution of the camera divided by the width of the camera’s field of view. The width of the camera’s field of view can be determined independently with a tape measure or rangefinder, as well as with the help of special online calculators, if you know the focal length of the camera lens.
Also, when sampling a camera, you should study its following characteristics:
Camera resolution, measured in megapixels (Mpx), is determined by the number of active pixels-sensors placed on the video matrix. They convert the light flux into electrical impulses, which are then decoded into an image on the monitor using a special microchip, which also acts as an electronic shutter. To obtain an image in Full HD (1920 x 1080), a resolution of 2.1 Mpx is sufficient, which is easy to check if you multiply the number of dots per inch. We can say that an economically viable solution for large areas is the combined use of several video cameras with a resolution of 1-2 Mpx and one or two 3-5 Mpx. for installation in places where high detail and image scaling may be required. For residential and summer cottage needs, devices with high resolution are most likely not required at all. Guidelines for calculating the number of pixels for the purposes of video monitoring tasks are given in Table 1 (see above).
- CCD (Couple Charged Device), also known as CCD (charge coupled device);
- CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor), aka K-MOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor), aka K-MIS (complementary metal-insulator-semiconductor).
The CCD is demanding on climatic conditions and can be damaged even by direct sunlight or seasonal temperature changes, so it should not be considered for outdoor cameras. In addition, high-resolution CCD sensors, superior in image quality to CMOS matrices, are several times more expensive than the latter and are used only in professional surveillance cameras that have the necessary protection and optics. The latest generation CMOS sensor video panels are in no way inferior to CCD matrices, at least not an expert in special equipment will not see the difference, but the savings effect will be clearly visible when creating a video surveillance system with your own hands.
Diagonal die size in fractions of an inch: ½ (12.7 mm), ⅓ (8.47 mm), or ¼ (6.35 mm). It would seem that the larger the area of the matrix, the more sensor elements it can fit. this is so. However, in budget models that do not have high-quality high-aperture lenses, this rule does not work. For example, in a 5 Mpx matrix, only its central area will be involved, giving only 2.1 Mpx at the output, that is, Full HD format. no more, no less. This once again proves the fact that it makes sense to consider such parameters as the size and resolution of the matrix only in conjunction with other characteristics of the camera, primarily with the type and functionality of the lens.
Frame rate per second: 8 to 30 FPS. For “stationary scenes” such as parking, 8 FPS is quite enough, but observing a busy highway will require at least 30 FPS, especially if it becomes necessary to recognize a license plate. It is important to pay attention to the resolution at which the maximum recording speed is supported, since 30 FPS can be claimed for advertising purposes, but in fact it turns out that they are available only for 640×480 resolution, and not for the desired Full HD.
The camera’s light sensitivity, denoted in lux (lx), for twilight conditions starts from 1 lux, and for night conditions. from 0.01 lux. It is proportional to the physical size of the sensor elements located on the matrix: the larger the surface area of the pixels, the higher the light sensitivity. But technologically it can be increased by the use of microlenses, which are placed above and between the sensors to improve the quality of image capture and attract additional light flux.
Let us recall that the rate of conversion of light into electricity and further into an image is determined by the rate of its accumulation in sensory elements. That is, the activity of pixels depends on the illumination. In the dark, the charge in these elements accumulates slowly, for example, not in 1/10 000 of a second as on a sunny day, but in 1/30 of a second. Consequently, for the “extra” time before reading information in pixels, “electronic” noise is collected, which affects the image quality and color. If the frame rate is also 30 FPS (1/30 of a second), then you need to either “manually” reduce the exposure time (shutter speed), which will darken the frame, since the charge will not have time to accumulate on the sensor, or reduce the charge accumulation time by 4 –5 times (up to 1 / 120-1 / 150 seconds at night), which is possible only with the use of more advanced matrices. The camcorder’s electronic shutter speed can be adjusted using the built-in Sens-UP (or DSS) function, and DNR (3D-DNR, 2D-DNR, SSNR) noise reduction technologies help to lighten the “weight” of the video stream (data recording volume) while improving picture quality.
Optical lens and zoom can be:
House Perimeter security Cameras location
- with fixed, manual or remote focal length (usually in the range of 4-9 mm);
- with fixed or controllable (Direct Drive or Video Drive) aperture;
- with automatic iris control of illumination to highlight (darken) the subject against the background of the most illuminated areas of the frame (ALC);
- with back light compensation (BLC);
- with Auto White Balance (AWB) and Adjustable White Balance for changing illumination (ATW);
- with high dynamic range with digital signal processing to improve the quality of bright and dark areas in one frame (D-WDR or simply WDR); in analog video surveillance systems, this technology allows you to expand the dynamic range by 3 times from the average value (from 40 to 120), but here it is important to pay attention not to the presence of the function itself, but to its declared numerical expression, which should be provided by the manufacturer, but in fact it is indicated not always;
- Selectively compensated to improve the contrast and color of objects (with “adaptive tone reproduction”) in the presence of bright and dark areas of the frame (ATR);
- with protection against opposite directional illumination, during which the light source is captured and the area of its rays hitting the matrix is darkened (HLI);
- with automatic gain control of the video signal. 4-10 times (in the range of 12-20 dB). with reduced object illumination (AGC);
- with digital zoom for viewing individual sections of the camera’s coverage area in an enlarged scale and without loss of quality, for a detailed examination of the desired points of view (ePTZ);
- with detection of object movement, adjustable by the level of sensitivity and location in the picture: the frame is zoned into a certain number (several hundred) squares, and when suspicious activity is recorded in them, the object is selected and the brightness in the area of its location increases. this increases the likelihood of detecting and recording unwanted events (MD);
- with or without other functions.
Do not forget that the light passes through the lens to the matrix. The quality, luminosity and optical resolution of the latter should also correspond to the level of the installed video sensor, at least not artificially underestimate it.
Infrared illumination is a set of IR diodes (or collimators) located along the perimeter of the lens, which emit infrared Spectra light (720-940 nm) invisible to the human eye (but perceived by the video matrix) into the video monitoring zone. The range of the IR illumination (like the price of the camera) can vary in a fairly wide range. from 5 to more than 100 m.Sometimes special infrared illuminators are used for high range, which significantly reduce the load on the communication channel, since a black image gives a huge bitrate. Obviously, cameras with IR illumination are needed in facilities where a significant part of the surveillance is carried out at night.
To automate the work of IR illumination, the Smart-IR function has been developed. which regulates the radiation intensity of the IR diodes. The fact is that infrared illumination can lead to the flooding of one part of the frame with white, leaving the other indistinctly dark. This may be due to an incorrect selection of the power of the IR diodes or an unsuccessful design of the floodlight. The first problem is solved with Smart-IR. which, instead of primitive switching on / off the backlight based on the analysis of the illumination of the object, controls the power of infrared radiation, depending on its approach / distance, not allowing individual areas of the image to be exposed. The processor “completes” the rest of the work using the above D-DWR function.
Another technology to combat this problem is IR-cut (or ICR. Also called “day-night”). an IR cut filter that removes excess IR reflections that are invisible to the eye and thereby prevents image distortion and overexposure. The IR-cut function is only activated during normal light periods and turned off in dark conditions, making the entire emitted range available to the image sensor, which is then displayed as a black and white image so that colors do not introduce their distortion into the frame.
Microphone (built-in, remote or absent).
Housing (anti-vandal, plastic, etc.).
So, one of the most important parameters that you need to pay attention to when choosing a video camera are its resolution, matrix size and frame rate during observation and recording. The larger they are, the higher the image detail, but the higher the load on the communication lines. This is a very important point! Communication channels and data archiving will require serious resources if you are tempted by high-quality video.
Some people criticize cameras that work with a low “storyboard”. only 8 FPS (frames per second). But think for yourself, what kind of attacker has such a reaction speed that will allow you to evade shooting in less than 0.125 s, that is, in one eighth of a second? At the same time, a low frame rate significantly saves traffic, since with the same communication resources, for example, instead of one 24 FPS camera, you can put as many as three 8 FPS. If your goal is not a home video, but the security of a guarded object, this speed will be enough.
Some experts know how to upgrade CCTV cameras with improvised means, which can achieve significant savings. For example, they use ordinary eye optics. minus lenses of 10-15 diopters. to increase the camera’s viewing angle by about 50% of the nominal, or they seal fragile WEB cameras in all-weather housings from under halogen projectors with the addition of silica gel inside to adjust the humidity. Obviously, DIY is probably not for you, but who knows what solutions you will make as you gain experience?
Do-it-yourself video surveillance system installation: expert recommendations
Unconditional security at the object of protection. whether it is residential or commercial real estate, closed or open territory. is difficult to ensure without the use of video surveillance systems. And although their design, selection of components and installation require certain knowledge and experience, it is still possible to install video surveillance for a private house with your own hands. Let’s consider the main technical points and give tips that will help in creating a video monitoring system on our own.
Choosing a data transfer method
Do-it-yourself CCTV cameras can be connected in two ways. via wireless channels or via cable (coaxial cable, fiber optic, twisted pair). As already mentioned, in the first case, the owner saves money on the cable, excavation and other installation work, there is a need for a separate power supply to the devices. The cable provides a high quality signal, but it can be interrupted, and not every facility has the ability to lay it. In addition, various types of cable have limitations in bandwidth and range of use.
Coaxial high-frequency cable (letter designations RK, RG, DG, SAT) has a BNC connector and consists of an axial inner conductor (single straight, twisted helical, stranded wire or tube) made of copper, aluminum or their alloys, of solid or semi-air fluoroplastic dielectric fixing the “axis”, as well as from an external shielding conductor (braid, twisted metal tapes, foil or corrugated tube) and external insulation made of light-stabilized polymer. Its various brands differ in the degree of shielding, insulation diameter, heat resistance, characteristic impedance (usually 75 ohms) and, ultimately, in purpose. It is on the quality of the cable and its laying, and not on the “sophistication” of the CCTV camera that the noise immunity and the signal level at the output depend.
For example, a properly laid high-quality 75 Ohm shielded copper coaxial cable will guarantee a stable connection when the cameras are located at a distance of 250-300 m from the DVR. ST, FC, LC, MU, F-3000, E-2000, FJ, etc.), or twisted pair of certain brands will allow installing multiple cameras at a distance of up to 3 km or even more (see Table 2). Twisted pair (designations UTP, STP, FTP, etc.) is mainly used for IP video cameras, cameras with rotary mechanisms and zoom lenses, for complex video surveillance systems. For home and summer cottage use, it makes sense to consider the option of a combined “coaxial” (KVK2P or KVK4P), capable of simultaneously transmitting video and audio signals and powering a video surveillance camera. this is very convenient when connecting analog-digital devices. In addition, the combo cable offers significant savings.
Table 2. Range of application of some brands of cables (example)
Maximum recommended distance