How to make a hidden camera out of a broken laptop
One of the good ways to do it yourself is to use a laptop webcam. This is one of the smallest cameras used in scrap technology. In size, it is slightly smaller than a conventional lighter in length, and three times thinner in width. Such cameras can be pulled out of a broken laptop, which cannot be repaired.
The camera must be removed carefully, through the body, trying NOT to damage the mechanism itself and the wires leading to it.
A laptop camera can be adjusted and connected through its wires. Of the many wires that connect the camera to the computer, you need to use 4, which are responsible for image transmission. Each of the cameras has its own wire colors, they are determined by the laptop manufacturer, each of which uses unique color codes.
What does the law say to hide surveillance
Covert surveillance is absolutely legal action if it does NOT violate other people’s rights. The most common accusation in connection with covert surveillance is invasion of privacy. And, indeed, the discreetly removed camera allows you to observe people without their knowledge, and the use of such materials is prohibited by law.
To make your actions completely legal, in compliance with all legislative aspects of covert surveillance, it is necessary to install an information plate in the apartment (if the camera is installed in the apartment) that will notify guests or people working in your house (invited tutors, nanny, construction workers, plumbers and other people) that they can be filmed with a surveillance camera.
If this is not done, then filming their actions even for protection purposes (for example, to control the quality of their work) will be considered illegal.
If people who are under surveillance are warned about it, their rights are respected. Without knowing where the camera is, they will not know exactly where it is, but will be notified of what is on and what they can be filmed.
We make a hidden camera with our own hands from a broken laptop, smartphone. Connection and configuration. Where to place.
A hidden camera is a surveillance tool that is increasingly being introduced and used in everyday life. Self-contained, discreet surveillance is a reliable and convenient way to ensure the safety of yourself and your loved ones. Increasingly, people buy expensive hidden cameras in order to feel protected, although it is quite possible to make a hidden camera with your own hands from improvised technical materials.
What else do you need besides the camera
One camera taken out of a laptop will certainly not be enough. You also need to get tools to help you get the camera out of your laptop, as well as what you need to connect the camera to the USB cable so that you can use the device again. In addition, the USB cable itself will be needed.
In total, the list of necessary things will definitely be replenished:
- USB manual;
- Soldering iron;
Where to place cameras
A hidden camera, as its name implies, should not be located in plain sight, but at the same time it must constantly keep under observation the object it is aimed at, otherwise it does not make sense to install it.
So, what can a mini surveillance camera be aimed at:
- At the front door to an apartment or house. The recording can be carried out both from inside the house and outside. Often, a hidden camera that you can do yourself is installed next to or in the door peephole.
- On the windows and what is under them, as this is another way to enter an apartment or house with criminal intent.
- To the house from the side to monitor the safety Not only at home, but also in the territory closest to it.
- At the place of keeping valuable items in the house. a covert surveillance camera aimed at the safe, one of the additional ways to ensure the safety of your property.
- For expensive items used for their intended purpose, for example, a computer.
- For places that are best kept under supervision, and not being constantly near them. a small child, for example.
How the place should be arranged for the camera to be Functional:
- The place must be well lit, because cameras without additional accessories cannot be used for night photography.
- The light should NOT be directed towards the camera as it will be dazzled.
- There should be a good viewing angle, so some people advise to mount the camera at the height of the cornice in the corner. The whole room will be visible from this place.
A few ideas for where to place the camera:
- The camera can be placed in the TV cabinet. If it is installed on it, then it makes sense to hide it.
- A good way to mount a desktop surveillance camera is to put it in the speakers from the inside.
- The bookshelf is the perfect place to hide your camera in or between a book.
- You can install the camera in any hard-to-reach decorative element, for example, hidden among collectibles or in a decoration suspended high.
On the subject: DIY observation from a laptop camera
You can find out, Track and repeat all the stages of creating a secret camera with your own hands from a regular camera on a laptop are shown.
USB connection and setup
In the USB cable, regardless of the manufacturer, there will be 4 wires of the same color:
- The black wire is a common wire, it is also a ground wire, it is also a ground wire, whose potential is taken as zero, the rest of the wires and voltages are measured from the voltage of this GoPro drive. The letter designation of this GoPro drive: GND. that’s the English word Ground.
- Green and white wires answer in USB with a plus and minus. Their names are D and D-, short for Data and Data-
- The red wire, the VCC wire is a wire that goes under a voltage of five volts from the common GoPro.
In the camera, the colors of the wires, as already mentioned, can be completely different above. However, the main 4 wires carrying key functions can be isolated by following the instructions on the numerous on YouTube.
Regardless of the colors of the wires to the cameras, they go in a strict order, and if you connect them, soldering as shown in the picture, then there is a high probability that the camera will work and the connection will be correct.
Why a DIY hidden camera can be useful
- For tracking children;
- To ensure the security of the front door to a house or apartment;
- For monitoring and protecting the space under the windows;
- For additional protection of valuable property. a camera aimed at safes, computers, other expensive equIPment or jewelry stored in the house.
Where is Better not to install
Based on the above, it is worth Summing up where the camera is Better not to install:
- Against the light. against the window, exactly under the lamp, with a flashlight pointed at the camera. this will spoil the image, the quality of the shooting, and over time the hidden camera itself will deteriorate.
- It is also not worth hiding the camera in a dark place, especially if it is aimed at a very well-lit area. this will create too strong contrast and the quality of shooting will significantly decrease.
- The camera should not be located near the energy converters, this can adversely affect its operation and gradually completely disable the created device. Therefore, the further the camera is located from the inverters, the better.
- Microwave devices will also slowly but surely disable a hand-made device, so it is necessary to give a hand-made camera from a microwave and similar devices.
- Fluorescent lights will also disable the camera.
You should pay close attention to the location of the camera, since an error in this parameter will make all the previous work completely meaningless.
How to make a webcam
Before making a webcam, check your digital camera for webcam mode. Then connect the camera to the computer via the USB port. The camera will no longer become a webcam, unless you use a special application that can be downloaded on the Internet. A webcam can also be made from a smartphone. For example, to convert a smartphone to Android OS, you need to use the DroidCam Wireless Webcam program, which is installed on the smartphone. It handles all the settings on its own, so you don’t even have to set up your mobile device. Similar programs have been created for other operating systems.
Installing the Python interpreter
To begin with, you should download the Python program to your Symbian smartphone. this is a programming language interpreter, which is necessary for the subsequent conversion of a smartphone into a camera. This program can be found on this resource garage.Maemo.Org or on the one that you usually use to download all kinds of programs. The downloaded archive will contain a SISX or SIS file that you need to extract from it in order to subsequently place it in the memory card folder. the folder name Others. Using your mobile device’s file manager. Go to the above folder and run the file you unpacked, after which the installation will start in automatic mode. During installation, the program will ask you some questions. answer all questions only in the affirmative. The place of installation of the file will be the memory card, which you will choose when you next question.
Installing the Python scrIPt
Before making a camera with your own hands, using a used smartphone, you need to download the PySpy archive. it contains a Python scrIPt. You can find this archive on sourceforge.Net. After downloading the archive, feel free to extract the file with the py extension and place it in the folder that the interpreter uses to store the examples (the folder name may differ depending on the version of the operating system). Launch the previously downloaded interpreter and invoke the Python scrIPt. It is normal to have errors when calling the scrIPt, so you shouldn’t worry, but you should call it again. When restarting, as a rule, no errors occur.
The program menu will open, in which you need to configure specific parameters. If you want to use the local ability to save snapshots, then enable this option. The program will ask you a question about where you want to store the pictures. choose only the memory card, and not the memory of the smartphone itself. The menu will offer several ways to alert you when motion is detected in the room where your homemade camera will be installed. You need to choose a method, and depending on the chosen method, indicate your mobile phone number or your email address. So, you can choose:
- Sending SMS or sending MMS;
- Sending a message to email.
How to make a camera?
If you are interested in learning how to make a camera that will represent a surveillance system, then you need to have a smartphone that runs on the Symbian operating system, and also be able to use some programs. Given that there are several versions of the Symbian operating system, before downloading software to your smartphone, you need to know which version of the operating system is installed on your smartphone.
Completion of work
You already practically know how to make a camera from a phone, only a few details remain. you need to choose the right place in the room where you will install your once smartphone, and at the moment, a homemade camera. Attention! The place for installation must be selected in such a way that the device is constantly recharged. Secure the device, preferably in such a way that no one would find it, and at the same time, could not steal it. As a rule, homemade surveillance cameras are used at home, so the warning sign that the room is being monitored should not be hung.
Check the correct operation of the device. your movements should be recorded by the camera, after which the device will notify you in the way you have chosen. One detail. The memory card should be checked periodically if you choose to save snapshots locally. This is necessary in order to free the card from obsolete images. If any of the images seemed suspicious to you, then make backups.
Hidden and underwater camera
Before making a hidden camera, you must remember that the current Russian legislation prohibits making covert photography, with the exception of certain cases. Therefore, if you want to secretly observe someone in your home, then use the recommendations that are given at the beginning of our article. they relate to the manufacture of a surveillance camera from a smartphone. The mobile device can be hidden in a secluded corner, both in the children’s room and in the bedroom. Basically, many Russians use hidden surveillance cameras to check on their nannies or some family members.
Please note that you can make an underwater camera from a regular webcam, so you must have this device in stock, before you decide to make an underwater camera yourself. In a nutshell, the tightness of a homemade underwater camera is impossible. Please note that it must be fully compatible with the operating system of the netbook, which you will be using for viewing. Take a webcam underwater. You need to connect the camera to the netbook using a five-meter USB extension cable. Do not allow water to enter the netbook, which will be located on the shore. In the place where the plug of the webcam connects to the outlet of the extension cord, you need to tightly wind the electrical tape.
The extension cord also needs some work. Next to the plug, which is connected to the netbook, break the wire. This is the wire that is responsible for the voltage. Install a 0.25A fuse in the gap to protect the netbook from short circuits. All the above actions are performed with the extension cord disconnected from the netbook. After installing the fuse, wrap it in several layers of electrical tape. Put the camera in a plastic bottle before immersion in water. you do not need to attach the camera to anything.
How to make DIY observation for home
Hello dear readers of my blog. With you Marat Nauruzbaev. Today I decided to write an article on how to make do-it-yourself surveillance for home inexpensively and without using a static IP.
I will show you an inexpensive three-camera and recorder surveillance system that I put together at home. The archive and the picture from the cameras in real time can be viewed via the Internet, including via a smartphone. I also set up sending a message to E-mail when motion is detected on one of the cameras (inside the house). over, I organized online surveillance via the Internet, which usually requires a static IP, which costs money to rent from your GoProvider, but it is almost impossible to rent from cellular providers (USB modem). We can do without him. How? I’ll tell you about this below, and don’t switch # 128578;. As always, I will tell you everything in detail, in pictures and from surveillance cameras.
DescrIPtion of the surveillance system configuration
So, in order to assemble a surveillance system with your own hands at home, you first need to decide which object you will observe, what is the distance to it and, depending on this, how many surveillance cameras you will use.
In my example, I used the following hardware:
- 8-channel recorder NOVICAM F2. 1 piece.
- 750 GB hard drive. 1 PC.
- Camera color dome analog INNOVI IV-807J (2.8 mm). 1 PC.
- Color analog camera RVi-E165 (3.6 mm). 1 piece.
- IP camera Hikvision DS-2CD2032-I. 1 PC.
- Power supply for analog cameras DC 12V 2A. 1 PC.
- Power Supply for IP Camera (POE Injector IEEE802.3af 802.11G 48V 0.5A 24W)- 1 PC.
- Cables (KVN, UTP), connectors
- Router (router) ZyXEL Keenetic Omni. 1 PC.
- USB modem. 1 pc.
Instead of a USB modem, you can use your wired Internet, instead of a ZyXEL Keenetic Omni router (router), you can use any other and cheaper one, just this one is more sharpened specifically for working with USB modems.
How to make observation with your own hands
- DescrIPtion of the surveillance system configuration
- Installation surveillance
- DVR setup
- Setting up an IP camera
- Cloud connection of Novi Cloud service
- Smartphone access
So, when you have all the observation components will be purchased for cooking # 128578;. We insert the hard disk into the recorder. I will not show you how to do this, each registrar has its own installation procedure and it is described in the documentation for it. There is nothing complicated there. I will only show you how the NOVICAM F2 recorder itself looks like
Features of the model
- Compact size (width 20 cm)
- SATA HDD 3.5 support “up to 2 TB. Seagate Green Series Hard Drives Recommended
- Simultaneously: live. Recording, playback, network, archiving, menu
- Selecting the recording quality for each channel D1 (704 × 576) / HD1 (704 × 288) / CIF (352 × 288)
- Real-time recording of all channels with D1 resolution
- Remote viewing via Internet in real time and maximum quality (Windows 7 / Windows 8 / XP / Vista)
- View from mobile devices (IPhone, IPad, Android)
- Graphical user interface
- USB mouse and IR remote included
Now, in order to make observation with my own hands, I will briefly describe the installation of the monitoring system step by step (in relation to an apartment, house, cottage). I ask you not to judge me strictly, since I am self-taught and did everything myself without anyone’s help. First, I will show you a general scheme of my observation (pictures are clickable):
So, now actually in steps:
- We mount surveillance cameras in their places. I have one analog camera mounted on the ceiling inside the house. Second analog and IP camera. in the yard
- We mount the KVN cable from the installation site of the cameras to the proposed installation site of the recorder. We mean that analog cameras are connected through the KVN cable, IP cameras. through the UTP cable “twisted pair”. Therefore the cable “UTP” must be fixed from the IP camera installation site to your router. I have the cable laid “according to the popular”, so I almost never fixed it anywhere
- StrIPping the ends of the KVN cable and crimps it with connectors. We have one cable that transmits the signal from the camera and power to it. Therefore, you also need to connect power to this cable from a 12V power supply.
- Connect one end of the KVN cable together with power to the analog camera
- End of cable “UTP” into the connector of the IP camera, the other end into the power supply for the IP camera (POE injector), but the power supply is already cabled into the free connector of the router
Recorder We install in a convenient and preferably hidden place from prying eyes.
- Connect our assembled KVN cable from analog cameras to it (from each cable to a separate socket).
- Connect the power supply from the 12V power supply to the KVN cable.
- Connect to the RJ-45 connector of the recorder in advance “compressed” cable “UTP” (its second end is inserted into a free port of the router).
- If you want to watch the picture from cameras on your TV, then connect the composite cable to the TV (you can use the HDMI cable, but for some reason this method did NOT work for me)
- Connect power to the recorder from its power supply.
Well, half of the work can be said to have been done. Next, we need to configure everything correctly.
In general, in order to make an observation with your own hands, you need to set up the whole thing. There is nothing complicated here, each registrar has its own menu and settings.
If you have a registrar of another model, then read the documentation for it. I’ll tell you about the settings of the NOVICAM F2 recorder, but not all settings, namely what I changed so that it worked fine and saw my home network and my cameras. I warn you that your settings may differ, but this is not important for centuries, because the main thing for you is how to set it up.
First of all you need to look “sees” whether your DVR is an analog camera. He has not yet will see, since we have NOT configured the network settings of the DVR and IP camera yet.
Turn on the TV, set the input in the TV settings to which you connected the recorder. When you turn on the recorder and cameras, you should see the picture from the cameras on the TV screen. If the pictures are comments, check all connections and power to all devices.
To navigate the menu, you can use the remote control that comes with the recorder. I use a wireless mouse, the adapter of which I plugged into the USB port of the recorder. This is more convenient # 128578;.
So, we saw a picture from analog cameras, now choose from the menu Main Menu. Settings. General
We set the current date and time.
Then go to Main Menu. Settings. Network and assign IP addresses to the registrar
In my case, I assigned the following IP addresses to devices on my local network:
- Router (router). 192.168.1.1
- Registrar. 192.168.1.13
- IP camera. 192.168.1.10
- Computer. 192.168.1.2
- Laptop. 192.168.1.3
You assign the IP address as you want, just keep in mind that they must all be on the same subnet (192.168.1.Xx, 192.168.0.Xx, etc.)
Next go Main Menu. Settings. CPU. Mode
We set the mode two analog cameras, two IP cameras
Now we need “see” IP camera. Go to Main Menu. Setup. CPU. Digital Channels. Push the button Add to
We set the channel, protocol, IP addresses, port, username, password of the IP camera. Push OK (before that, you have to assign IP addresses to the IP camera, see the section Configuring the IP camera)
In princIPle, we have configured the main functions of the registrar. The registrar became “visible” in our local network, and the registrar itself became “see” our IP camera. Analog cameras, the recorder should initially see without any settings.
Now let’s configure the security function on the recorder. I set up my camera, which I have installed in the room at home, so that if it detects any movement in its visibility zone, it sends a message to me by mail (e-mail), and mail reception is configured on my smartphone. Naturally, I turn off the motion detection function when I’m at home, but it’s better to turn off the entire camera, which I began to do Subsequently.
To configure this function, go to Main menu. Alarm. Child movement. We set the channel (camera) and put a tick Allowed and Email. I have motion detection enabled only on the second (home) camera. On street cameras, in my case, it makes no sense to enable this function, since there “perpetual motion” # 128578;
Also go to Main Menu. Alarm. Motion Close and enable the function of sending a message to Emai when the camera is closed for all cameras
And also in case of signal loss for all cameras Main Menu. Alarm. Signal Stream
Entrance surveillance system with network cameras
How to set up surveillance at the entrance with your own hands
Savings Ways When Installing Surveillance With Network Cameras
- Savings on the purchase of a computer directly for the surveillance system. If there is a concierge at the entrance and there is no need for constant broadcasting in real time, it is better to choose mini cameras with memory cards. It will record directly on them, you just need to select an optimal memory card and correctly configure the camera (depending on the card capacity and camera resolution, the continuous recording time can be from 3 hours to several days). In the event of an incident at the entrance from the surveillance camera, you can at any time take out a memory card, insert it into a PC or any other device and view the recording.
- Optimal camera settings will save not only space on the storage medium, but also electricity. By choosing a network camera model with a motion sensor, you can configure the camera so that recording is turned on only when a moving object of a certain size appears in the lens (the settings allow you to exclude recording when small moving objects appear. For example, cats).
Saving methods when installing surveillance with analog cameras at the entrance
- When choosing analog cameras for the entrance, you must pay attention to their resolution. This value is measured in TVL, and the higher it is, the better the quality will be. However, you should not overpay for equIPment with very high resolution. To ensure high-quality shooting at the entrance and near the house, there are enough cameras with a resolution of 420-650 TVL.
- From surveillance cameras in such a system, it is recorded and stored on an information carrier installed in the recorder. Hard drive or memory card. For a surveillance system at the entrance, in which there are 4 or less cameras, it makes special sense to install a hard disk with a capacity of more than 1 TB (terabyte), if the surveillance system consists of 1-2 cameras, a 500 MB disk is enough.
- Under the entrance canopy, it is necessary to install the camera exclusively in a vandal-proof steel case; it is also better to install cameras inside the entrance in such a way that they cannot be broken by an intruder or hooligans.
How to start self-installation of surveillance at the entrance?
How to choose cameras for surveillance at the entrance?
There are 2 main types of cameras that can be used to organize surveillance at the entrance: analog and network. Cameras of the first type have a slightly lower cost, however, in order to establish observation at the entrance with your own hands with the introduction of analog cameras, much more additional equIPment and technical knowledge is needed than for installing network cameras.
To install a surveillance system with analog cameras at the entrance, you will need the following basic and additional equIPment:
- Surveillance cameras. It is better to install an anti-vandal camera with IR near the front door to the entrance, and in the entrance itself. Modular;
- Registrar. If there are 4 cameras (or less) and installation of additional surveillance cameras is NOT planned in the future, a 4-channel DVR is sufficient; in other cases. 8- or 16-channel recorder;
- Monitor for viewing from cameras;
- Power cables for all system elements;
- Coaxial cables (wires through which the signal from the cameras will be broadcast to the DVR).
Need a consultation?
Please contact us if you have any questions. Consult, we will show you. If there is no experience and the necessary skills, then we will help you complete the entire observation installation from the beginning to the delivery. Inspection of the object with us is free. Call!
How to choose a surveillance camera?
To establish surveillance for a house (dacha) with your own hands, you must first of all determine the number of cameras and their tasks (see Table 1).
Table 1. Choice of camera resolution in accordance with surveillance tasks
Minimum camera resolution, pixel / meter
Panoramic surveillance, motion detection
Identification of the car number
Recognition acquaintances people
Recognition strangers people
The quantity pixel per meter is the quotient of the horizontal resolution of the camera divided by the width of the camera’s field of view. The width of the camera’s field of view can be determined independently with a tape measure or rangefinder, as well as using Special online calculators, if you know the focal length of the camera lens.
Also, when selecting a camera, you should study its following characteristics:
1. The resolution of the camera, measured in megapixels (MPC), is determined by the number of active pixels-sensors located on the matrix. They convert the light flux into electrical impulses, which are then decoded into an image on the monitor using a special microchIP, which also acts as an electronic shutter. To obtain an image in Full HD (1920×1080), 2.1 MPC resolution is sufficient, which is easy to check if you multIPly the number of dots per inch. We can say that an economically justified solution for large areas is the combined use of several cameras with a resolution of 1-2 MPC and one or two 3-5 MPC. for installation in places where high detail and image scaling may be required. For residential and summer cottages, high-resolution devices are most likely NOT required at all. Guidelines for calculating the number of pixels for the purposes of control tasks are given in table 1 (see above).
It is important
Contrary to popular belief, it is not the number of megapixels that determines the image quality. although to a certain extent this is so. but the sensor manufacturing technologies, the increased pixel size, the quality of the sensor material, the use of microlenses, and accelerated electronic shutter and many other technological factors. Thus, modern American CMOS matrices OmniVision OV2710 and Aptina AR0330 with a resolution of 2.1 and 3.5 MPC, respectively, have significantly better light sensitivity and less noise than their 5-megapixel predecessors.
2. Matrix type:
- CCD (Couple Charged Device), also known as CCD (charge coupled device)
- CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor), aka K-MOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor), aka K-MIS (complementary metal-dielectric-semiconductor).
The CCD is demanding on climatic conditions and can be damaged even by direct sunlight or seasonal temperature changes, so it should not be considered for outdoor cameras. In addition, high-resolution CCD sensors, superior in image quality to CMOS matrices, are much more expensive than the latter and are used only in professional surveillance cameras that have the necessary protection and optics. The latest generation CMOS touch panels are NOT at all inferior to the CCD matrix, at least not an expert in special equIPment will NOT see the difference, but the saving effect will be clearly noticeable when creating an observation system with your own hands.
3. The size of the matrix diagonally, measured in fractions of an inch: ½ (12.7 mm), ⅓ (8.47 mm), or ¼ (6.35 mm). It would seem that the larger the area of the matrix, the more sensor elements it can fit. this is so. However, this rule does not work in budget models that do not have high-quality high-aperture lenses. For example, in matrix 5 MPC only its central area will be involved, giving only 2.1 MPC at the output, that is, Full HD format. no more, no less. This once again proves the fact that parameters such as the size and resolution of the matrix, it makes sense to consider only in conjunction with other characteristics of the camera, primarily with the type and functionality of the lens.
4. Frame rate per second: from 8 to 30 FPS. For still scenes, such as parking, 8 FPS is quite enough, but observing a busy highway will require at least 30 FPS, especially if it becomes necessary to recognize a license plate. It is important to pay attention to the resolution at which the maximum recording speed is supported, since 30 FPS can be claimed for advertising purposes, but in fact it turns out that they are available only for 640×480 resolution, and not for the desired Full HD.
5. The camera’s photosensitivity, denoted in lux (lx), for twilight conditions starts from 1 lux, and for night conditions. from 0.01 lux. It is proportional to the physical size of the sensor elements located on the matrix: the larger the pixel surface area, the higher the light sensitivity. But technological it can be increased by the use of microlenses, which are placed above and between the sensors to improve the quality of image capture and attract additional light flux.
Let us recall that the rate of conversion of light into electricity and further into an image is determined by the rate of its accumulation in sensory elements. That is, the activity of pixels depends on the illumination. In the dark, the charge in THESE elements accumulates slowly, for example, not for 1/10 000 of a second as on a sunny day, but for 1/30 of a second. Therefore, for superfluous time before reading information in pixels are collected electronic noise, which affects image quality and color. If the frame rate is also 30 FPS (1/30 second), then either manually Reduce the exposure time (shutter speed), which will lead to a darkening of the frame, since the charge will not have time to accumulate on the sensor, or Reduce the charge accumulation time by 4-5 times (to 1 / 120-1 / 150 seconds at night), which is using more advanced matrices. The camera’s electronic shutter speed can be adjusted using the built-in Sens-UP (or DSS) function, and DNR (3D-DNR, 2D-DNR, SSNR) noise reduction technologies help to facilitate the weight stream (amount of recorded data), while improving picture quality.
6. Optical lens and zoom can be:
- With a fixed, manual or remote focal length (usually in the range of 4-9 mm);
- Fixed or Controlled (Direct Drive or Drive) aperture;
- With automatic iris light control to emphasize (darken) the subject against the background Highlights of the frame (ALC)
- Back light compensation (BLC)
- With Auto White Balance (AWB) and Light Adjustable White Balance (ATW)
- With extended dynamic range with digital signal processing to improve the quality of bright and dark areas in one frame (D-WDR or just WDR) in analog surveillance systems This technology allows you to expand the dynamic range by 3 times the average value (from 40 to 120), but here it is important to pay attention not to the presence of the function itself, but to its declared Numeric expression, which should be given by the manufacturer, but in fact it is not always indicated;
- Selectively compensated to improve contrast and color of objects (with adaptive tone reproduction) when there are bright and dark areas of the frame (ATR)
- With protection against opposite directional illumination, during which the light source is captured and the area of its rays hitting the matrix is darkened (HLI)
- With automatic signal gain control. 4-10 times (in the range of 12-20 dB). with reduced object illumination (AGC)
- With digital zoom for viewing SEPARATE sections of the camera’s coverage area in a larger scale and without loss of quality, for a detailed view of the desired points of view (ePTZ)
- With the detection of object movement, adjustable by the level of sensitivity and location in the picture: the frame is zoned into a certain number (several hundred) squares, and when suspicious activity is recorded in them, the object is selected and the brightness in the area of its location increases. this increases the likelihood of detecting and recording unwanted events (MD)
- With or without other features.
Do not forget that light passes through the lens to the matrix. The quality, luminosity and optical resolution of the latter must also correspond to the level of the installed sensor, at least it does not artificially underestimate it.
7. Infrared illumination is a set of IR diodes (or collimators) located along the perimeter of the lens, which emit infrared light (720-940 nm) invisible to the human eye (but perceived by the matrix) into the control area. The range of the IR illumination (like the price of the camera) can vary in a fairly wide range. from 5 to more than 100 m.Sometimes special infrared illuminators are used for High range, which significantly reduce the load on the communication channel, since a black image gives a huge bitrate. Obviously, cameras with IR illumination are needed in facilities where a significant part of the surveillance is carried out at night.
To automate the work of IR illumination, the Smart-IR function has been developed. Which regulates the radiation intensity of the IR diodes. The fact is that infrared illumination can lead to the filling of one part of the frame with white, leaving the other indistinctly dark. This may be due to an incorrect selection of the power of the IR diodes or to an unsuccessful design of the illuminator. The first problem is solved with Smart-IR. Which, instead of primitive turning on / off the backlight based on the analysis of the illumination of the object, controls the power of infrared radiation, depending on its approach / distance, do not let us expose individual areas of the image. Remaining Processor Work completes using the above D-DWR function.
Another technology to combat this problem is IR-cut (or ICR. Also called day Night). IR-cut filter, which eliminates excess IR reflection, and not Visible to the eye and thus prevents distortion and overexposure of the picture. The IR-cut function is activated only during normal light periods and turned off in dark conditions, making the full emitted range available to the sensor, which is then displayed as a black and white image so that colors do not introduce their distortion into the frame.
8. Microphone (built-in, remote or absent).
9. Case (anti-vandal, plastic, etc.).
So, one of the most important parameters that you need to pay attention to when choosing a camera are its resolution, matrix size and frame rate for monitoring and recording. The larger they are, the higher the image detail, but the higher the load on the communication lines. This is a very important point! Communication channels and data archiving will require serious resources if you are tempted to high-quality
Here are some people you can hear criticism of cameras that work with low storyboard. only 8 FPS (frames per second). But think for yourself, what kind of Attacker has such a reaction speed that will allow bowing from shooting in less than 0.125 s, that is, in one eighth of a second? At the same time, a low frame rate significantly saves traffic, since with the same communication resources, for example, instead of one 24 FPS camera, it will deliver as many as three 8 FPS. If your goal is not homemade. And the security of the protected object, this speed will be enough.
On a note
Some experts know how to upgrade surveillance cameras with improvised means, which can achieve significant savings. For example, they use ordinary eye optics. minus lenses of 10-15 diopters. to increase the camera’s viewing angle by about 50% of the nominal, or they seal fragile WEB cameras in all-weather housings from under halogen projectors with the addition of silica gel inside to adjust humidity Obviously, the circle do it yourself most likely not suitable for you, but who knows what solutions you will choose, gaining experience?
DIY surveillance system installation: expert recommendations
Unconditional security at the protected object. be it residential or commercial real estate, closed or open territory. is difficult to ensure without the use of surveillance systems. And although their design, selection of components and installation require certain knowledge and experience, it is still possible to install surveillance for a private house with your own hands. Consider the main technical points and give tIPs that will help you create a control system on your own.
Necessary equIPment for organizing a surveillance system
The easiest thing to do is to install surveillance with your own hands in an apartment. Any PC user can handle this task. In this case, the amount of expenses will NOT exceed 12,000-17,000 rubles. The cost of installing and maintaining equIPment increases if the object of protection is a country house, housing or commercial real estate is temporarily abandoned.
Self-assembled surveillance kit includes several elements: cameras, network recorder, server (computer), data storage, router (for wireless devices), cables (radio frequency and electrical or twisted pair), power supplies and specialized software (core of the surveillance system. operating system, modules for analysis and integration with third-party software systems, etc.).
When installing a surveillance system with your own hands in an apartment, you can do without a registrar, using a regular computer as a server. In this case, it is enough to install a network camera and connect it to a PC or mobile device via Wi-Fi. Almost all Wi-Fi cameras of the Cube class (or cube) are able to record information on flash cards, microSD and microSDHC memory cards. The cost of THESE devices varies:
- From 4,700 rubles (TBTec TBC-i4312IR, Optimus IP-H061.0W (2.8), ATIS AI-361 and AI-361, Space Technology ST-711, Hikvision DS-2CD2412, RVI IPC11S and IPC12S, Hiwatch DS-N241W, Beward CamDrive CD120 and CD110)
- 30,000 rubles (AXIS M1054, ACTi E11, E12 and E13, Hikvision DS-2CD2432F, Beward N520).
If the cameras will be connected wirelessly, you must use a router. For home use, the most budgetary option is suitable. Data storage is carried out on a hard drive or in a cloud service, which does not require a static IP address. For example, in the system Line for 8,000 rubles per month, you can rent a dedicated Cloud server with pre-installed software, storage from 2 HDDs with a total volume of 1 TB, allowing the organization of a mirrored Raid1 array, a 100 Mbit / s communication channel and completely unlimited traffic for 8 IP cameras. Obviously, with fewer cameras, this service will cost proportionally less.
On a note
When calculating the resources of the remote surveillance system, it is recommended to proceed from 80-120 GB of disk GoPro space, focused on a 2-week archive, and 10 Mbps of a dedicated line for each installed IP camera.
Numerous modifications of cameras for indoor and outdoor surveillance are on the market. Their cost starts from 1000 rubles and on average is 2000-5000 rubles for analog AHD / TVI / CVI devices and 3500-13000 rubles for IP equIPment. Many vendors offer ready-made kits for wired and wireless systems. The price of such offers usually starts from 15,000 rubles, which ultimately significantly exceeds the cost of equIPment purchased separately.
In addition, sellers often refer to wireless surveillance as a local network between the cameras and the recorder, rather than direct Internet cameras. However, DIY installation of surveillance is not always an easy task, and for an insufficiently trained user, such kits can be the optimal solution.
It is important
In addition to open cameras, there are also hidden ones. miniature, camouflaged and secret. However, their use is regulated (not prohibited!) By Article 138.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. That is, on the territory of personal property, you can use them as you like, as long as someone else’s property does not fall into the lens. For use, for example, in an office or a sales area, you will have to obtain written consent from employees and notify visitors about the presence of covert surveillance. Any supervision in toilets, changing rooms, etc. is strictly prohibited.
Choosing a data transfer method
Do-it-yourself surveillance cameras can be connected in two ways. wirelessly or by cable (coaxial cable, fiber optic, twisted pair). As already mentioned, in the first case, the owner saves money on the cable, earthworks and other installation work, there is a need for a separate power supply to the devices. The cable provides a high quality signal, but it can be interrupted, and not every object has an eGoPro installation option. In addition, various types of cable have limitations in bandwidth and range of use.
Coaxial high-frequency cable (letter designations RK, RG, DG, SAT) has a BNC connector and consists of an axial internal GoConductor (single straight-line, twisted helical, multicore GoProdrive or tube) made of copper, aluminum or their alloys, from a solid or semi-air fluoroplastic dielectric, fixing behold, as well as from external shielding GoConductor (braid, twisted metal tapes, foil or corrugated tube) and external insulation made of light-stabilized polymer. Its various brands differ in the degree of shielding, insulation diameter, heat resistance, characteristic impedance (usually 75 ohms) and, ultimately, in purpose. It is from the quality of the cable and eGoPro laying, and not from fancy surveillance cameras depend on noise immunity and output signal level.
For example, a properly laid high-quality copper shielded coaxial cable with a characteristic impedance of 75 Ohm will guarantee a stable connection at a distance of 250-300 m from the camera from the recorder.At the same time, single-mode or multi-mode optical fiber having a variety of connectors and ST, FC, LC, MU, F-3000, E-2000, FJ, etc.), or twisted pair of certain brands will allow installing multIPle cameras at a distance of up to 3 km or even more (see Table 2). Twisted pair (designations UTP, STP, FTP, etc.) It is mainly used for IP cameras, cameras with PTZ mechanisms and zoom lenses, for complex surveillance systems. For home and country use, it makes sense to consider the option of a combined coaxial (KVK2P or KVK4P), capable of simultaneously transmitting. both an audio signal and powering a surveillance camera. this is very convenient when connecting analog-digital devices. In addition, the combo cable offers significant savings.
Table 2. Range of application of some brands of cables (example)
Maximum recommended distance