Networks for a beginner IT specialist. Mandatory base

About 80% of us who finish the university with any IT specialty in the end does not become a programmer. Many are arranged in technical support, system administrators, wizards for adjusting computer devices, auto-seller consultants, managers in the IT scope, and so on.

This article is just for such 80% who only graduated from a university with any IT specialty and has already started monitoring vacancies, for example, to the post of system administrator or his assistant, or an outbound engineer in an outsourcing company or technical support for the 1st / 2nd line.

As well as for independent study or for learning new employees.

During his work in the field of IT, I encountered such a problem that the universities do not give the most basic database regarding networks. With this, I first encountered myself when, after graduating from the university, I walked on interviews in 2016 and could not answer simple (as I think now) questions. Then it certainly seemed to me that I was cool and did not reassure at the university. But as it turned out the case in the educational program. Since now, I also come across this knowledgeable knowledge when I teach new employees.

And then, I had to study many articles on the Internet before I understood the base moments, and that now, asking young topics to study, they hardly find and assimilate the necessary. This happens due to the fact that on the Internet a huge number of articles and all of them are scattered on topics, or written too complex. Plus, most information at the beginning of their articles contain mostly simply scientific definitions, and then immediately complex use technologies. As a result, it turns out a lot that for a beginner is still completely incomprehensible.

That is why I decided to collect the main topics in one article and explain them as simpler “on the fingers”.

Immediately I warn you that there will be no in-depth information in the article, only the most basic base and the most basic.

Threads that are considered:

Everything is ready. If you click on the Internet connection icon, you will see the network you created. She will with the status “Waiting for User Connection”.

You can connect other computers to this network.

Connect to the network computer computer

This process is no different from connecting to other Wi-Fi networks. In the list of available networks on another computer, it is enough to choose the network running by us, click Connection, and specify the password.

That’s all the settings. You can connect other computers.

Setting up a local network in Windows 10: connect to the home group

Go to another computer. Now I will show on the example of a computer with Windows 10, how to connect to the home group, to create a home local network. You can connect not only computers from installed Windows 10, but also with Windows 7 and Windows 8.

Already in a standard diagram, press the Internet icon on the Internet icon, and select the Network Management Center and Common Access. Go to the home group.

If you have a message “The home group is not available, since you are not connected to your home network.”, then click on changing the location on the network, and click on the Yes button.

We wait a little, and we see a message that we can join the home group. Click the button will join.

Password request will appear. We specify the password that we received when creating a home group on another computer. Click OK.

A message appears that you joined the home group. Click Finish.

If you open the Network and Shared Access Control Center. Home Group, you can configure sharing, leave the group, view the password and t. D.

Everything, the local network between computers is already working. Open the conductor (this computer). Go on the left to the Network tab, and we see computers on the local network. We can open them, and view the folders to which shared access is open. Computer with Windows 10 without problems sees a computer with installed Windows 7 in the network.

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Similarly, a computer on Windows 7, sees and enters a computer with Windows 10. In this way, you can connect other computers. One condition that they would be connected to your router.

What to do next? How to use a local network?

It all depends on what purpose you combined computers in one network.

  • If you want to play on the network, then everything should work. Sometimes antiviruses block such connections. So if problems arise when computers will not see each other, then just try to disable antivirus for a while.
  • To exchange files, you can use shared folders. Just copy files for example to the “My Images” folder (provided that we have opened sharing to this folder during the setup process). and they will be available from all computers online. If you want to open sharing your folder on the local disk, then follow this instruction. See after the header “Setting sharing files and folders”.
  • And on setting up shared printer access, I will prepare a separate article.

These are the advice. I hope the article came in handy.



Different Tips for Windows

Hello! I have 2 computers, the main with Win10 and the old with Win7, on Win7 set up a home group, installed a private network on Win10, but the home group created in Win7 can not enter, since in 10 ke, this concept turned off. Computers seem to see each other, but are not in the same group. If I give sharing folders, they see these folders, but you cannot go. And by chance, on both computers, I opened access to specific folders. in Win7: in “Common Access”. “Specific Users” and in Win10: “Share”. “Separate people” users “Guest”. And then the computers began to see and enter these folders. It turns out that I did not a local network, but simply solved the folders for the whole Internet? )) It’s wrong and unsafe? Any “guest” from the Internet can watch these folders ? Tell me what I did wrong? (You can answer here, you can in the mail)

Forgot to add: I performed all the actions on your article, I first pop up the error “not found network path Error 0x80070035 in Windows 10”, but after some manipulations disappeared, in Win7 “specific users” no user Win10 and on the contrary, but I can add “all” and “the guest”. But if I do not add a “guest”, it pops up “Windows cannot access \\\, contact the network administrator to gain access” What I have to “Network”? )))

Hello. I do not think that you could somehow open sharing files for all. Difficult to answer, because I do not see that you set up there.

No need to customize a home group. In Windows 7, you can delete it. Just allow sharing files and printers and enable network detection on both computers. Check that home (private) network has been assigned to connect on both computers.

Cable Setup

Configure the local network computer, you can use the cable using. Used RJ45. It happens two types:

To create such an association, we need a cross-connector. Cable disassemble independently need only when buying.

Since the current network cards can independently determine its type during installation.

If the cable of another type was at hand. it’s not scary. The program will automatically determine this and select all the necessary settings.
create, computer, network, transport, protocols

Cable for creating locality for multiple computers

Detail You need to contact PC in the PC cell. Green indicator will be lit. it means that everything functions well.

  • We go to the “Control Panel” and appeal to “network connection”.
  • Select the icon and use the right button to mash.
  • A window appears, you need to select the “Properties” string.
  • The page surfaced in which the connection is written and there are methods that are used in this conjugation.
  • Select the last item and click below the button. “Properties”.

Configure Connection using cable

  • In this section, you need to designate ahi address. It should be in this format On both PCs they cannot be the same.
  • Saving configurations using the “OK” button.
  • Perform reboot.
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Setting up a local network after connecting computers

Go to the main stage. setting up the local network on two computers.

Setting up IP addresses

If you used a router to connect two computers, you need to configure automatic data from the router on the network cards of two PC:

    Click simultaneously on “wines” and r. We write in the line NCPA.CPL. Click on OK.

Put automatic IP and DNS receipt

If you have connected directly, you need to put specific IP addresses for two computers. We go to the same window with the properties of the IPv4 protocol. In the window we set the IP address and subnet mask

In the second computer settings, install such parameters:

Changing the “Computer” names and the name of the Working Group

Now set the name in the “LAN” for each computer and denote the overall working group:

    We call the familiar window to “execute” using “Win” and R. We write in the free field of SYSDM.CPL. We perform the command.

In the “Computer Name” tab, click on “Change”

Change your computer’s name to more understandable

Configure sharing files and folders turn off password protection

First you need to open sharing documents on both computers. If you do not do it, what individual folders you would not do public (available to devices on the local network), no one will see them:

    Reveal the “Perform” window using the combination of “wines” and r. This time we type the word Control and click on the “Enter” or OK in the window itself. So we will open the control panel menu.

Enter the Control in the Panel Startup window

Click on the last link above the left

Enable access to directory and computer files

Setting the Local Printer Access

Before setting, you must make sure that the PC with which the printer is connected, all the printer drivers are connected, and that the print device is configured on the computer. If all this is, go to the debugging of local access:

  • Go to “Control Panel”, and then to the “Equipment and Sound” and “Devices and Printers” section. You must see all printers connected to your PC.
  • Now press the printer to the printer to which you want to open sharing, and click on the Printer Properties.
  • Here, we primarily interested in the “Access” tab: check the box in front of the “Shared Access to this Printer” item.

Put the mark next to “Sharing this printer”

Open access to specific folders

Now when there are shared access, make certain folders visible for gadgets on the local network. To make it easier nowhere:

  • Find the desired directory or file. PCM on this document.
  • In the gray menu with a list of actions, we bring the cursor on the line “Provide Access”.
  • Select one of two options for the home group. only with viewing or simultaneously with viewing and ability to change files.

Provide access to the required folders

Instructions for setting up a local network in Windows 7

Let me remind you that the computers that you want to merge into the network must be connected to one router, or the cable is connected directly. Also, all the actions that I will show in this section must be performed on both computers.

Important moment! If you want to configure the network via a Wi-Fi router to which some third-party firmtles are connected (for example, your neighbor), then after setting, it can access those folders on your computer to which you are configured. Common access. Install a good password on your Wi-Fi network to protect your network. If you still need to connect third-party devices to your router, but you want to set up home network, you can create a “guest network”, as we did on the ZyXEL router in this article.

Another point. If you set up a network when connecting computers directly, without a router, you will still need to set static IP addresses in the local network connection properties. If you have a connection through a router, you don’t need to do anything additionally, keep following instructions.

1 First thing, we need to check that all computers would work in one working group. It is necessary to check on all computers that will be connected to the local network.

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We do this: Press the WinR key combination, and in the window that appears, specify the SYSDM command.CPL. Click OK.

Opposite the working group, most likely will be written workgroup. You can leave it. The main thing is that the rest of computers the working group is also workinggroup.

If you come in changing it, for example, on MSHOME, then click the Edit button, and specify a new group. Save the changes and restart the computer.

2 second step, this is a change in sharing settings. These settings are also performed on all computers on the network. Now I will show you what to turn on.

Right-click on the Internet connection icon on the notifications panel, and open the network management center and shared access. In a new window, select Change Additional Sharing Options.

There will be two profiles. Home or worker and general. Change the one that the current profile is written. You can make such settings for both profiles.

First of all, we put the switch near the network detection. Also, we include sharing files and printers, and turn on sharing folders. See the screenshot below.

Scroll through the page with the settings, we find and open the All Networks tab, or general, and be sure to turn off sharing with password protection.

After these actions, it is advisable to restart the computer. This is actually all the settings, the local network must work. To check, you need to go to the conductor on one of the computers (my computer). and on the left open tab network. All computers on the network will be displayed there. In the screenshot, you can see my computer, and one more, from the network.

We can already go to the computer in our home network, there will be access to shared folders.

If you do not appear computers on the network, or there is no access to the computer, then see solutions at the end of this article.

Basic concepts

Local Area Network (LAN). these are two and more computers that are connected between a network cable failure or wireless way. The local network is very convenient for use at home, as users are enough to click on the mouse several times to access the contents and programs on the other PC.

You can connect not only computers to the local network, but also various printers, wireless columns, Smart-TV and other devices that support your selected connection method.

Also, networks are configured in all enterprises in which there is a need to communicate employees at any time through chat. Local network is much safer than working with the Internet, since the channel of accounting information on the global network is excluded.

Today, most users prefer to create local networks using a Wi-Fi-router, which is access point for all mesh devices. Wired connection in practice is less common and provides for an alternate connection of 2-3 computers using an Ethernet cable.

  • Network node is a computing device that is part of a local network. A node can be any gadget (computer, smartphone, tablet and other).
  • The IP address is a unique identifier of the device within the local or global network. In the case of using home networks, there is a user-dedicated address range that are assigned devices.

Bonus (Shadowsocks)

Not always needed a full VPN, sometimes just want to safely see the cats in the browser. For Windows download https: // GitHub.COM / SHADOWSOCKS / SHADOWSOCKS-Windows / Releases

Shadowsocks Windows (does not require administrator rights)

In the Firefox browser, download the FoxyProxy extension (also on Android), setting up: SOCKS5 /

FoxyProxy for Firefox for Chrome. Proxy-Switchyomega

For Android HTTPS: // / Store / Apps / Details?Id = com.Github.Shadowsocks Select only proxy (then the VPN channel will not rise).

create, computer, network, transport, protocols

Shadowsocks Android Shadowsocks Speed ​​at MTS Provider in St. Petersburg SSTP VPN (2 Network Devices) Speed ​​on MTS Provider in St. Petersburg

Why amazon? the lowest speed that was. 10Mbps.

Why FreeBSD? SofteTher is installed under it by the package manager, and the OS itself consumes less resources without that deadly virtual server.