We build a network with our own hands and connect it to the Internet, part one

We begin to publish a cycle of articles on the deployment of a small (within the house or small office) of a local network and connecting it to the Internet.

I believe that the relevance of this material is quite high today, since only in the last couple of months several of my friends, well.known computers as a whole, asked me questions on network topics that I considered obvious. Apparently they are far from all for everyone 😉

In the course of the article, the terms from the network region will be used, most of them are explained in mini-chan about networks compiled by Dmitry Redko. Unfortunately, this material has not been updated for a long time. Although he did not lose relevance, there are quite a few gaps in him, therefore, if there are volunteers to fill these gaps, write to the email indicated at the end of this article. When using the network term first, a hyperlink will go from it to explain it in the chapo. If some terms are not explained in the course of the article or in the chapo, do not hesitate to mention this fact in the conference where this article will be discussed.

So. The first part will consider the easiest case. We have 2 or more computers with a built.in motherboard or installed separately by a network card, a switch or even without it, as well as a channel on the Internet provided by the closest provider.

We fix that all computers installed the Microsoft Windows XP Professional operating system with Service Pack version 1. I will not say that this is the most massive OS, now installed on computers, but to consider all existing families of the same Microsoft for a long time (but if there are many suffering ones, we will analyze others). Version of the OS language. English. In the Russian version, everything will work in a similar way, readers will only need to find the correspondence of Russian counterparts in the names in the screes below.

If we have only two computers and there is no switch, then to create a network between two computers requires the presence of a network card in each of them and a cross-Over cable to combine computers with each other.

Why cross-ova and what is bad a regular cable? In the Ethernet standards at 10 and 100ms (10Base-T and 100Base-TX), 4 wires are used for twisted pair (two sweaty wire pairs). Usually in a cable, such as a twisted steam, 8 wires, but only 4 are used of them (all eight are used in Gigabit Ethernet).

In connectors of the MDI type installed on the network maps, contacts 1 and 2 are responsible for the transfer, 3, 6. per reception. If you combine the contacts of two network cards with a straight cable (one to one), then nothing will work, which is obvious from the figure:

On both network cards, in the case of a direct wire, pairs of 3.6 are combined for reception (both will wait for transmission, listen to the fishing line for a trimmer) and a pair of 1.2 responsible for the transfer (both will try to transmit, but no one will hear them ). This problem is corrected by the Cross-Over cable, it crosses the wires of 1.2 and 3.4, t.e. Changes them. Thus, a signal of 1.2 pairs will go to 3.6 pair of the second network card, and out of 3.6. 1.2.

Two switches are united by each other according to the same principle (MDI-X connectors are on the switches, the same cable cable is necessary for their connection).

Now we are returning to our network of two computers. If you skip the theory, then to connect the above.mentioned machines we need to either buy a ready.made cable cable, or squeeze it yourself, using a squeezing tool.

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After receiving the cable, we connect with it the network maps of computers and voila. everything should earn (at the physical level). To check the operability of the network at the physical level (signal level), it makes sense to look at the indicators (most often green), which are located on the network map near the RJ-45 connector. At least one of them should be responsible for the indication of the presence of a link (physical compound). If the indicators on both network cards lit up, then there is a physical link, the cable is pressed correctly. The burning indicator on only one of two cards does not mean that everything is in order on the physical level. The flicker of these (or neighboring) indicators signals about data transfer between computers. If the indicators on both cards do not burn, then it is highly likely to be pressed incorrectly or it is damaged by the cable. It is also possible that one of the network cards failed.

Of course, the described in the previous paragraph does not mean that the operating system sees a network card. The burning of indicators only indicates the presence of a physical link between computers, nothing more. For Windows to see a network card, you need a driver of this card (usually the operating room itself finds the right one and puts it automatically). Quote from the forum: “Just yesterday, I diagnosed the case with a connected network, not completely inserted into the PCI-connector. As a result of “physically” the network worked, but OS did not see it.””.

Consider the second situation. There is a switch and two or more computer. If two computers can still be connected without a switch, then if there are three (or more), then their unification without a switch is a problem. Although the problem is resolved. to combine three computers, you need to insert two network cards into one of them, convert this computer into a router (router) mode and connect it to the two remaining machines. But the description of this process is already beyond the scope of this article. Let us dwell on the fact that to combine three or more computers into one local network, you need a switch (nevertheless, there are other options: you can combine computers with a firewire integration or USB Datalink Cable; as well as using wireless (Wi-Fi) cards translated into AD HOC mode of functioning But more on that in the following series).

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Computers are connected to a straight cable to the switch. What is the embedding option (568a or 568b) will be chosen. absolutely not important. The main thing is to remember that on both sides of the cable it (seal) coincided.

After squeezing the cable (or buying it in the store), and connecting all the available computers to the switch, you should check the presence of a physical link. The check proceeds similarly to the above method for two computers. On the switch near the ports, indicators signaling the presence of a physical connection should also be present. It may well turn out that the indicators are not near (from above, from the side, from below) with the port, but are taken to a separate panel. In this case, they will be numbered in accordance with port numbers.

Connecting a computer to a computer via a router

This article will describe the processes of creating a local network in various versions of Windows, as well as some nuances associated with obtaining a full.fledged sharing of PC folders and media files located in the same network group. The methods of combining several computers with different OS are slightly different, so they will be described separately.

The instructions below do not require the use of any third-party programs and the availability of special experience with the user. All that is required is to create a new local group and configure remote access to it.

First you need to create a network, adhering to the following steps:

    In the desktop there is a icon that displays available Internet points. By pressing the right mouse button to this icon, use the lowest section “Center for Control of Networks and General Access”.

After conducting the above actions, you will need to change the attitude of access to the connected device. Open the already familiar window “The Center for Management of Common Networks and Access”, in which select “Change the Additional General Access Parameters”.

At the last stage, you will see the final window, after some manipulations in which, you will complete the adjustment of a new access point. To do this, it remains only to rearrange the two points. Put one on the contrary “Turn on network detection”, the second opposite the “enable general access to files and printers”. The creation of the connection is finished on this and you can synchronize the second computer.

Note! If the second computer does not see the created network, the reason can be hidden in various names of the working group. Go into the properties of the computer and, if necessary, rename the required value into the same names of both devices.

Enter the properties of the computer and go to the “Additional parameters of the system” tab.

Select the “Computer Name” section and click “Change”.

At the bottom of the window opened, you can rename the working group.

Connection options

Adapter-a device resembling a conventional USB drive and connects directly to PC. To configure the Internet:

  • Insert the adapter into the port and wait for the appearance of the window about activation.
  • Insert the drive with drivers and start the installation.
  • At the end of the procedure, click on the wireless network icon (BS), select the network and enter the password.

On the Windows XP icon, the BS icon can be found in “Network connections”.

Options for building a home local network

The main condition for organizing a home local network is to connect computers with a router using a correctly squeezed twisted pair. It is also necessary to correctly configure all network parameters on the router and each computers.

The configuration of work parameters includes the following actions:

  • Go to the device control panel through the Start menu.
  • Open section with network connection parameters.
  • Select the right connection and wait for the appearance of a new window. Select a line with information about the state of the connection, open its properties.
  • Select the TCP/IPV4 protocol, open its properties.
  • Activate the “Use the following IP” by moving the slider. Manually specify the subnet mask with the IP address of the computer.

The remaining parameters are not subject to change. The user needs to save new settings using the button. When setting up the security of the connection, it is recommended to choose the options proposed by the manufacturer.

Windows systems from Microsoft are characterized by 3 security settings:

  • Home. Connected devices take part in the organization of nets. Must activate the functions of the network environment. This will allow you to access data on all devices within one local network.
  • Working. Optimal solution for small offices. The principle of work is similar to the home option. The network environment is activated, and general access to information and all devices is opened.
  • Public. Standard option for public places. This default security level hides access to connected devices.

After the parameter configuration, you need to check all the devices for connection to one network. You should make sure that there are no repeated IP addresses within the framework of one network. It is also worth making sure that each computer has a unique name on the network. You can set the network name for each of the PC from the “My Computer” by going into “Properties” and finding the point “Computer name, domain name and the parameters of the working group” in them.

A properly configured local network through a router will allow each of the connected devices to access information stored on the remaining participants in the network. In order to fully use this possibility, you need to correctly configure safety settings and overall access.

Possible problems and solutions

The first thing to do when faced with the problem of creating a Wi-Fi network on Win 10 is to check the correctness of all the actions described above. Their exact implementation is the key to success. After all, one missing checkmark or one wrong letter in the name of the working group will lead to the fact that creating a local network via Wi-Fi Windows 10 through a home router will not come out, and the overall access will not appear.

  • When the PC file is opened, he asks the password. turn off the password protection, as described in step 3.
  • The first computer sees the second, but the second does not see the first. fully perform step 3 on both PC.
  • Devices do not find each other. If all the steps are 100% performed above, then perhaps problems with setting addressing on the router. You can try to go into the properties of the adapter (through the network control center), select the TCP/IP4 protocol and its properties, and then manually prescribe the IP address of the computer. Do it on both PC. Remember that the addresses should differ, but consist in one subnet.
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So, now you know all the nuances how to set up a local network through a router. This opens up a lot of prospects and greatly simplifies work and rest. No need to transfer the flash drive around the apartment anymore, you do not need to send your own files to your mail or to the landlords. Thanks to the convenience of Windows 10, you yourself become the owner of your home network.

Methods of connection

Consider the four most popular methods for connecting a computer to a wireless network.

connect, computer, network, router

External adapters

This device is similar to a small flash drive. Different manufacturers sell these devices from 400. The device is connected to the system unit.

Share Internet Connection from PC to Router

To configure the external adapter and connect Wi-Fi, you need to follow the instructions:

  • Connect the device to PC via input for USB. Next, a window should come up, which reports on successful activation.
  • Then a disc with drivers is inserted into the computer discovery, installation begins. After that, you need to press the “Next” button, not paying attention to the pop.up information.
  • After the drivers are installed, you need to find the wireless network icon on the taskbar, which appeared there. You need to click on it, select a network and enter a password.
connect, computer, network, router

If there are questions, watch a video instruction on connecting a Wi-Fi adapter to a computer:

If Windows XP is installed on the computer, then the wireless network icon will not appear. He is searched for independently. To do this, you need to go to the “network connection”, select your network from the list that appears and enter the password.

Internal adapters

Experts in the field of information technology do not recommend novice users to connect Wi-Fi using an internal adapter, as this is quite difficult. But if the beginner still decided to do this, he needs to open the system unit, t. to. The device is connected to the motherboard.

The procedure for connecting an internal adapter is as follows:

  • Disconnect the PC from the electricity source, remove the side cover of the system unit, and also remove the antennas from the connected device and find the unoccupied PCI connector.
  • Next, you need to unscrew and remove the plug from the selected free connector.
  • Then the device is installed in a suitable connector. During its connection, you need to hold on to the edge for fastening and the right side of the motherboard. To completely place the adapter in the slot, you need to press slightly on it.
  • The plug is installed in the same place. Also, the user should not forget to tighten the screw back.
  • The last step is to set the cover of the system unit back. The antennas from the adapter should not be forgotten to attach to the rear surface of the device.

After installing the adapter on the PC, it becomes necessary to set it up. To do this, the user must install the drivers, wait until the network icon appears, or find it himself, enter the requested data.

It is possible to see how the external Wi-Fi adapter in the system unit is installed in the next

Using the router

You can also connect PC to Wi-Fi using a router, in addition to which a wire will need. This is done in this way:

  • Connect the device to the power source, connect one end of the cable to the LAN port of the router, and the second to the PC network card. Then the indicator should light up.
  • Then you need to go to the router settings system, enter into the target line IP address. You can read this information on the rear surface of the device. Next, the login and password are entered. As a rule, this word “admin” in both cases.
  • Then the user needs to find the “Network” tab, select “WAN” in it and designate the type of network connection, which is used by the connected Internet provider. Information is indicated on the official website of the provider or in the contract that was concluded with him.
  • Next, you need to find a “mac clone”, indicate “clone the MAC address”, accept changes and save them.
  • Then you need to open the “Wireless Networks” tab, click the “Wireless Network Settings” parameter, and set it up name.
  • Reloading through the System Tools tab.

After the above manipulations, the router will distribute Wi-Fi to other devices. To connect to a wireless Internet in the future, you can simply select your network and enter the requested data into the line that appears.

How to connect and configure the router (for example, TP-Link’s popular router is taken) to obtain a Wi-Fi communication on PC, it is told in the video below:

Replacing the motherboard

Today there are motherboards with Wi-Fi adapter. Replacing the usual fee with this will allow you to connect a computer to a wireless Internet.

Built-in Wi-Fi adapters, as a rule, are only on expensive mother-in-law motherboards. Therefore, connecting to a wireless network in this way can be a very expensive procedure. In addition, the process of replacing the device is quite complicated, so it is better to entrust it to a specialist.

In general, the instructions for replacing the motherboard looks like this:

  • Both side parts of the system unit are removed.
  • Next, you need to replace the panel of the connectors, which is located on the back of the case. This part is replaced by a new one, which is configured with the purchased fee.
  • Then you need to find the racks (elements that prevent the board from touching the body of the system unit). After the racks are found, you need to install those that are included with the board.
  • Then the motherboard on the racks is installed.
  • Next, all components are installed, connected to the electricity source, connecting the front panel of the system unit. At the last stage, the system of the system unit is closed.

The need to create a local network through a router

You can start copying files from one computer or smartphone to another according to the old fashioned way using cords and flash drives. However, in order not to take away time and not to create unnecessary inconvenience, it is best to combine all devices by creating a home network through a Wi-Fi router.

The presence of a single network storage will allow you to acquire the following advantages:

  • operational exchange of information between devices;
  • access to all files on different devices;
  • Connection for use inside the network of the printer, scanner, cameras and other devices;
  • Participation in internet online games.
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Roter setup

As an example, we use the model of the Internet center ZYXEL NBG460N, connected to the Beeline Internet provider. Before setting up any device of this class, it is advisable to check on the manufacturer’s website the presence of a new firmware/microprochemer. The second important point is to change the administrator password for access to the router.

  • direct connection with a permanent or dynamic address (usually required on a router to change the MAC address on an external integration or inform the factory provider);
  • Connection via PPPOE. an entry of a name and password is required;
  • Connection by PPTP/L2TP. you need to indicate the address or server name, name and password user.

In particular, for ZYXEL equipment, the easiest way to configure is to launch a complete Netfried program, specify the region, the name of the provider and the account of the account. In a few minutes the Internet will work for you.

What are the following actions to take? Perhaps the very first action will be to configure a safe wireless network. Routers usually have an inclined radiblers with an open network. This means that anyone can connect to it and not only use your channel on the Internet, but also may access computers.

So we recommend changing the network name to something original and set the WPA2-PSK AES mode. This is the safest option today. And for equipment 802.11n only it provides maximum performance. Other options should only be used if some of your wireless equipment does not support it. Also do not forget that WEP cannot be considered safe today and that the password must be difficult. one and a half dozen random characters. Possible difficulties with its input on mobile devices are compensated by a high level of network security. And for laptops and PC, you can use WPS technology for quick connection. just press the button on the router and on the client and in a few seconds a safe connection will be configured.

To increase performance 802.11n is recommended to enable the “40” (or “20/40”) mode in the access point settings, which means working on two radio channels. You can choose the most free channel using the Insider program launched on a PC with an installed wireless adapter.

Usually the DHCP server is included on the router. He “distributes” the IP address settings for all devices connected to it. So they themselves no longer need to specifically indicate anything. Despite the fact that the system works automatically, we would recommend that you program fixed Mac-IP conformity for those devices that will subsequently need to contact the Internet from the Internet. This is necessary so that their IP addresses are constant and they can be prescribed in the rules for broadcasting ports.

Most often, the range of addresses that is used in the home network. 192.168.0. or 192.168.one., where “”. any number from 1 (usually at the router) to 254. Check the current PC C is possible or in the status of a network connection or by typing ipconfig on the command line (for Windows systems).

connect, computer, network, router

Recall that the MAC address is a physical/hardware identifier that any network device has. Often they are even written on packaging and cases. Formally, they are all individual on a global scale, but in many cases they can be changed through the settings of the device driver. It seems in the form of six bytes recorded in the format of hexadecimal numbers, for example 001020AABBCC or 00: 10: 20: AA: BB: CC.

The next point that you should figure out is permanent/external/white address. These concepts are often confused, so you must put things in order. In the case of using a router for connecting to the Internet, its WAN-integer has a specific IP address. All devices that are outside your home network see this particular address and do not know anything about your internal devices. The technology of broadcasting network addresses (NAT), working in the router, automatically and transparently for the user is engaged in the substitution of internal addresses with external and vice versa when transmitting and receiving network packages.

In turn, this address, which gives the provider or is required to indicate in the router during its configuration, can be constant or dynamic. The only difference between these options follows from their name.

But the most interest is the question of the external/white address. These terms are usually understood as “an address available from anywhere in the Internet”. As an example, you can cite an office mini-ATS with a single external number. All its subscribers can communicate with each other through a set of internal number. Outside the office, these numbers do not make any sense. At the same time, they can call urban phones, but it is impossible to directly get to each particular of subscribers with a set of city number. In turn, this office with its mini-ATs can be inside the office building with its PBX and another switch.

This example is one of the reasons for using NAT technology. you can have a local network with Internet access of almost any size, but “spend” only one address from a common global list. With the transition to a new version of the IPV6 protocol, this problem may disappear, but when it happens, no one knows for now.

It would seem. if the Internet works and so, then why may the external address be needed? To answer this question is quite simple. if you want to have access to your local network from the Internet, its use is necessary. For example, you plan to create a FTP server, place on a PC Web server with a family photo album or want to have access from the office to files on a home network drive. Note that these problems can be solved in other ways, but they are much more complicated and more expensive.

How to determine which address the provider provided you? First you need to look at the outer address of the router on the corresponding page of its web-intese, if it has the form 10. or 172.(16 31) or 192.168, it is unambiguously “gray” and in the usual ways of access from the Internet to your network cannot be obtained.

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