Just installed Astra-Linux (Debian?) and trying to get Wi-Fi work.

I just installed Astra-Linux (http: // www.Astralinux.COM/Debian.html and http: // www.Astralinux.COM/Download.ce.html) on its MBPR (V /DEV /SDA8) and the wired connection works, but not wireless. I am a Mint user, so I do not know OS based on Debian. In fact, I would also like to know if Astra-Linux Common is essentially simple (for my installation, service, use as an ordinary user, etc.D.) OS Debian.

Основы работы с Astra Linux (Астра Линукс)

But as for Wi-Fi. I previously installed it and received a request for this information;

But I had to reinstall for other reasons. In any case, now that I enter the same commands, I get;

I followed some sites that I offered to look at B43, B43LEGAGACY, etc.D. (https: // wiki.Debian.org/BCM43XX), but I do not find them in the search for Synaptic or Apt-Cache.

But I don’t know if I should add the “Debian” version to this list. or something else to find Wi-Fi, and perhaps other things, since this is a fresh installation.

By the way, I am success (easy) with Linux Mint 17.1.2.3 and 18.1 in terms of wireless communication working directly out of the box.

Also, I can access my Linux Mint 18 Working section.1 (/DEV/SDA6), if necessary.

And I just found this: (as far as I remember, I saw “WL”) Previously on my Linux Mint. If there is no repository, can I just install it using DPKG?

So, using @gad3r and @arochester, as well as links: http: // www.Oldnix.org/ Wi-Fi-Linux-IW/ I was able to launch Wi-Fi, and also learn a little about Debian and this particular distribution. (It seems that in this distribution there are several equivalent packages, for example, instead of iwconfig is /sbin /iW).

Perhaps this commentary helped, and it was the first thing I did, after which Modprobe gave an error, complaining about the lack of source for the core. Therefore, I installed: Linux-Pax, Linux-Headers-Pax, Linux-Headers-4.2.0-23 Linux-Tools, IW, WICD-GTK (the latter was just nicer than existing). I also prudently approved the installation of recommended packages.

Without rebooting, I do not know when he started working, but at the end of 3 or 4 instructions on the page on the link everything worked.

If someone needs additional information about this system, I will try to provide as much as I can.

How to change the parameters of the connection to the local network

You can get to the settings in different ways, but the easiest is to click on the network connection icon in the lower right corner and select the “Change connection” item.

In the window that opens, you will see all the connections. Choose the necessary, as a rule, it is only one and from below we click on the settings icon.

In the first tab, you can turn on an automatic connection and specify priority. Also allow access to this connection to all users and configure automatic connection to the VPN, more on that later.

The second tab will allow you to change the MAC, MTU, configure the parameters of awakening on the local network, specify the connection speed and the duplex.

In the third tab, you can enable and configure safety 802.1x.

Also in Astra Linux you can enable and configure DCB.

Of all the tabs, by and large, you only need this. In the rest it is better not to change anything. If your network has a DHCP server, then the computer will get all the settings from it. If not, then you need to change the connection method on manual and prescribe an IP address, mask, gateway and DNS.

IPV6 parameters are not yet used.

If you have only installed the Astra Linux operating system and you need to configure the connection to the network, then you only need the IPV4 parameters tab.

How to configure a Wi-Fi connection on any Linux-sketch

Let’s look at two cases of connection settings with a wireless access point:. a graphic WICD application (for example);. Console utilities.

It is assumed that you have a wireless network device (adapter) that works under Linux. If you suddenly find that your device does not work, you can offer, as one of the options for beginners, put the latest version of the Ubuntu distribution and install proprietary drivers for your wireless card. The proposed case is the simplest and most effective, compared with attempts to make the adapter work through the NDISWRAPER driver to work.

Questions and answers to Wi-Fi in Linux

Why does the MAC address change, even if the program is not used for this

Many modern distributions are constantly tuning to change the MAC address. Details about this, as well as how to disable or vice versa, turn on this function in the article “How to change the MAC address in Linux, how to enable and disable the automatic change (spun) Mac in Linux”.

How to find out if Wi-Fi will be supported for an audit of Wi-Fi networks

If you want to determine, the monitor and wireless injections support another adapter that is not included in the list, then study “How to determine which Wi-Fi adapter is suitable for Kali Linux”.

Modern Wi-Fi cards for wireless audit

Two.band wireless adapters with support for the monitor mode and wireless injections, as well as with support for the AC standard:

  • Alfa Awus1900 (Chipset: Realtek RTL8814AU)
  • Trendnet Tew-809ub (Chipset: Realtek RTL8814AU)
  • ASUS USB-AC68 (Chipset: Realtek RTL8814AU)
  • Alfa Awus036ach (Chipset: Realtek RTL8812AU)
  • Alfa Awus036ac (Chipset: Realtek RTL8812AU)
  • ASUS USB-AC56 (Chipset: Realtek RTL8812AU)

Any of these adapters will be relevant for many more years.

How to see what is happening with wireless intenses

The following commands will help you see absolutely everything that happens behind the scene during, for example, unsuccessful connections.

You can use the conclusion of the following commands to solve any problems with Wi-Fi.

The next team in real time will show everything that happens in your system. for example, when connecting a wireless adapter, it will show which driver is downloaded or what problems arose. Messages will also be displayed by applications:

The output of the program is very extensive, but its study can suggest the reasons for the problem. See also “How to use Journalctl to view Linux system logs”.

The next team will tell you about everything that happens at the level of the inter.sequences. how the IP addresses are assigned to intenses and what routes are prescribed in the system:

And this team will show all the events associated with wireless network intenses:

These three teams are the most important source of information to resolve non.obvious problems. Study their conclusion or provide the withdrawal of these commands if you are trying to jointly solve your problem with Wi-Fi.

How to see the events taking place in Networkmanager and WPA_SUPPLICANT

To see what is happening in NetworkManager in real time:

To see the events from WPA_SUPPLICANT:

How to find out how much traffic was transmitted

Why in Wi-Fi at 5 GHz are not available to the channels between 64 and 100

You can see what frequencies your Wi-Fi card supports.

The set of channels varies slightly, but in any case, the frequency in the range of the 64-100 channels is completely unavailable. That is, they are not even disconnected, but no matter how simply they exist.

You may also be curious why there is a gap between the 64 and 100 channel in Wi-Fi 5 GHz?

The range of 5.35–5.46 GHz lists various applications, including “air radio navigation”. There will be channels from 68 to 96. Obviously, they do not want equipment with Wi-Fi support even by chance, which could interfere with the aircraft navigation.

These channels are used together with meteorological radar. The router using these channels should check the presence of a meteorological radar. If a meteorological radar is detected, the router must switch to another channel on which there is no meteorological radar. I do not remember how quickly the router should stop using the channel. It could be 10 minutes.

If the router switches Wi-Fi channels, customers usually do not switch. Everything that was connected loses its connection. I think that the controller can switch customers to a new channel before the old one is disconnected, but again I’m not sure.

It can be corporate equipment. Consumers cannot afford it.

The lack of mentioning the channel in the list of supported frequencies, as well as the next entry means that your Wi-Fi device is not able to work on this channel:

You can also see the notes with “No IR”:

configure, wi-fi, astra, linux, provide, anonymous

No-IR flag (no-initiating-radiation) is translated as “lack of initiating radiation”, that is, the channel in principle can be used, but cannot be the first to send any data, that is, it will be used only if it receives from the Beacon router (lighthouses) these frequencies.

You can also see the notes with “No IR, Radar Detection”:

We have already figured out No IR, and “Radar Detection” apparently means that if a radar is found at adjacent frequencies, this frequency also ceases to be used. but this is rather a hunch, if you know a more correct answer, write it in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев.

Is it possible to use old adapters supporting only b and g Standards to hack

Yes, such adapters are able to carry out almost all attacks even on TD working at the standard N. See details in the article “For what attacks are old Wi-Fi adapters”.

Drivers and firmware

Wi-Fi drivers in Linux. Support for Wi-Fi Adaptors in Linux

Linux currently supports most Wi-Fi cards and drivers for them are already preinstalled in the system (they are part of the nucleus). That is, when buying a new Wi-Fi adapter or installing Linux on a laptop in the vast majority of cases, no action is required-Wi-Fi adapter will just work.

In rare cases, you will need to install the driver and/or firmware from standard repositories.

In exceptional cases, it is necessary to compile the driver from the source code.

You will find a list of installed drivers in the folder

If for some reason the driver has not yet entered the core, then he may be present in standard repositories in the form of separate packages:

  • Realtek-RTL8188EUS-DKMS (driver for RTL8188EUS, in some distributions is present in repositories; in Arch Linux is present in AUR, like other drivers mentioned here)
  • Realtek-RTL88XXAU-DKMS (driver for RTL8812AU/21AU). How to install this driver in various distributions, as well as many useful tips, see the article “How to install a W-Fi driver for cards with chipsets RTL8812AU/RTL8821AU (Alfa Awus036ach, Alfa Awus036ac)”
  • RTL8814AU (this driver for RTL8814AU chipsets, See details and hints in the article “How to install a W-Fi driver for maps with chipset RTL8814AU (Alfa Awus1900)”
  • RTL8821CE (this is a driver for Wi-Fi adapters based on the Realtek RTL8821CE chipset, there is no default, but in some distributions it has already been added to the repository). See Details on the installation in the article “How to install the Realtek RTL8821CE driver”
  • ATH10K_PCI driver, Qualcomm atheros qca9377 802 chipset.11AC Wireless Network Adapter: Wi-Fi Adapter Qualcomm atheros QCA9377 does not capture data packets in monitor mode (decided)

So, the drivers for most Wi-Fi adapters are built into the core and, therefore, are already installed on any Linux. Start by connecting your wireless card and try to connect to the access point.

If problems arise, look in the repositories of the driver and/or firmware for your device.

Linux drivers firmware

If you are familiar with the article “Linux nuclei modules”, then you know that many devices for proper work need two things: the driver and firmware. The driver requests a firmware from the file system in /Lib /Firmware. This is a special file required for hardware, this is not a binary file. Then the diver does everything you need to load the firmware into the device. Firmware programming equipment inside the device.

In addition to complete inoperability, when the system does not see a Wi-Fi device and wireless networks, the absence of firmware can lead to partial inoperability when the system sees the device, but cannot use it.

Examples of problems that can cause missing firmware:

Installation of the main firmware packages required for Wi-Fi devices is performed by the following commands.

The inability to establish wired and wireless connection on a computer with double loading

This problem is associated with the shortage of Windows, which, however, is easily corrected.

If you use a double loading computer, one of the operating systems is Windows you just worked with, you may face a problem that consists in the impossibility of obtaining an IP address after rebooting in Linux. Therefore, you will not be able to use the network connection in Linux.

This happens for the following reason: each network card has a unique MAC address, which is also preserved at the level of your router. precisely, it is usually remembered by the DHCP-server of the router. But when accessing the Internet resources from Windows, followed by rebooting in Linux, it is most often failed to get a new IP address from the router DHCP server, because this server remembers that earlier your network map has already been issued an IP address that before I have not been released.

You can correct the situation by force Windows to free the IP address used before rebooting the computer. By the way, Linux by default frees the IP address before rebooting or turning off the computer, so the reboot from Linux to Windows should not be associated with any problems.

Tip: did not have time to perform the described manipulations in Windows before rebooting and do not want to restart in Windows again? You can simply reboot again to Ubuntu or Linux Mint. After the second load Ubuntu or Linux Mint, you most likely will not have any problems with the establishment of a network connection.

3.one. Correction of the problem in manual mode

A. First of all, you should open the command line window in Windows as follows.

Start. Programs. Standard. command line

Start. all programs. standard. command line

B. After that, you should enter the following command into the opening window (pay attention to the spaces of the gap between ipconfig and /Release):

After the input of the command, the Enter key should be pressed to execute it.

3.2. Correction of the problem in semi.automatic mode

You can create a script file for the semi-automatic release of the IP address before rebooting Windows OS.

A. First of all, you should open a text editor from Windows as follows.

Start. Programs. Standard. Notepad

B. Next, you should create a text file containing the following line using this text editor:

C. The text file should be saved under the name “Release.BAT “on the desktop. After that, you can run it using a double click before rebooting a computer.

As mentioned earlier, Linux by default frees the IP address before turning off or rebooting the computer, so the reboot from Linux to Windows should not be associated with any problems.

Information for experienced users: the source code of drivers for chipsets of wireless network cards

If you have sufficient experience with Linux, you may be interested in repositories of the IWFinger project at the GITHUB hosting, which contains the source code of many drivers for chipsets of wireless network cards.

You can independently assemble any driver from these repositories and install it in your system using the following sequence of teams (of course, you will have to replace the line):

SUDO APT-GET Install Git Build-Essential

After installing the driver, you should restart the computer to automatically download it.

How to set up a wireless network on Linux

Wikihow works on the principle of wiki, which means that many of our articles are written by several authors. When creating this article on its editing and improvement, 17 people (a) worked, including anonymously.

The number of views of this article: 11 244.

This article provides a step.by.step guide to the home wireless network settings (IEEE 802.11 also known as Wi-Fi) on Linux.

Most wireless adapters are not designed to work on Linux OS, there are no developed drivers and firmware, which inevitably leads to problems. Thanks to significant efforts from the Linux community and some manufacturers, it was decided to correct this situation and recently Linux manufacturers have released distributions that support a significant number of wireless cards.

Ubuntu Wi-Fi Documentation is a good, and often updated manual, which indicates information about which cards are supported in the latest versions of Ubuntu (recent versions of other distributions should have similar support levels). There are also listed cards that have free software for users who have a philosophical (or other) objection against closed source drivers.

Enter the user name and password from your router (often “Admin” and !administrator!), then indicate your provider.

Урок 13. Настройка сети. Network Manager, nmcli. Бесплатные Уроки по Astra Linux.

Turn on the wireless network option, install WEP (or WPA) encryption and enter the password for access to the network.

Setting Astra Linux after installing

System update

To update the system, you need to perform two commands in the terminal. First team:

This command updates lists of repositories packages. The second team updates all installed packages to new versions:

The background of the desktop

To change the background of the desktop, click on the right button in the arbitrary area of ​​the desktop and select the property:

In the window that opens to change the background, you must click on the hand icon located to the left of the File button:

Next, you need to find the desired drawing and click on the Open button:

To use the picture, click on the application button:

Also in this menu you can remove or remove the Astra Linux logo and configure the slide show.

Setting up design

Next, you can change the design topic. Just as in the previous paragraph, you must click on the right button in the arbitrary area of ​​the desktop and select the property:

In the window that opens, you need to select the section of the theme:

You can configure the appearance of the mouse cursor by choosing one of the proposed topics:

You can change the design for the desktop icons by selecting one of the proposed topics:

In the scenery section, you can select the design for the window control buttons (close, turn, expand):

In the Color section, you can choose a color scheme for edging program windows:

Keyboard layout

After installation in the system, 2 keyboard layouts will be available. Russian and English. By default, the switching of the tongue occurs by simultaneously pressing the Alt and Shift keys, just like in the operating systems of the Windows family.

To add/delete the layout, as well as changes in the key combination to switch the input language, you need to open the search (button with the image of the star on the left below) enter the word layout and select the keyboard layout in the result of the resulting result:

In the window that appears, you can add or delete keyboard layouts. To add a layout, you need to find it, click on it and press the button with a green arrow, looking into the right. To remove the layout, you need to select it from the menu active layout and press the button with a green arrow that looks to the left:

To change the combination of the keyboard layout keys, you must go to the XKB option tab to click on the key combinations in the point of the main combinations. Below there will be a list of combinations available for selection:

Covering all additional Astra Linux settings is difficult as a lot of them. This article discusses settings related to the system integration and layout, as well as the installation of basic sets of programs, which will be useful in operation. And what optimization Astra Linux do you do after installing? Write in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев!

The article extends under the Creative Commons Sharealike 4 license.0 When copying the material, the link to the source is required.

Setting Astra Linux after installing

System update

To update the system, you need to perform two commands in the terminal. First team:

This command updates lists of repositories packages. The second team updates all installed packages to new versions:

The background of the desktop

To change the background of the desktop, click on the right button in the arbitrary area of ​​the desktop and select the property:

In the window that opens to change the background, you must click on the hand icon located to the left of the File button:

Next, you need to find the desired drawing and click on the Open button:

To use the picture, click on the application button:

Also in this menu you can remove or remove the Astra Linux logo and configure the slide show.

Setting up design

Next, you can change the design topic. Just as in the previous paragraph, you must click on the right button in the arbitrary area of ​​the desktop and select the property:

In the window that opens, you need to select the section of the theme:

You can configure the appearance of the mouse cursor by choosing one of the proposed topics:

You can change the design for the desktop icons by selecting one of the proposed topics:

In the scenery section, you can select the design for the window control buttons (close, turn, expand):

configure, wi-fi, astra, linux, provide, anonymous

In the Color section, you can choose a color scheme for edging program windows:

Keyboard layout

After installation in the system, 2 keyboard layouts will be available. Russian and English. By default, the switching of the tongue occurs by simultaneously pressing the Alt and Shift keys, just like in the operating systems of the Windows family.

To add/delete the layout, as well as changes in the key combination to switch the input language, you need to open the search (button with the image of the star on the left below) enter the word layout and select the keyboard layout in the result of the resulting result:

In the window that appears, you can add or delete keyboard layouts. To add a layout, you need to find it, click on it and press the button with a green arrow, looking into the right. To remove the layout, you need to select it from the menu active layout and press the button with a green arrow that looks to the left:

To change the combination of the keyboard layout keys, you must go to the XKB option tab to click on the key combinations in the point of the main combinations. Below there will be a list of combinations available for selection:

Covering all additional Astra Linux settings is difficult as a lot of them. This article discusses settings related to the system integration and layout, as well as the installation of basic sets of programs, which will be useful in operation. And what optimization Astra Linux do you do after installing? Write in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев!

The article extends under the Creative Commons Sharealike 4 license.0 When copying the material, the link to the source is required.

Preparation for creating an access point

For Broadcom cards, there are four drivers: the standard and default B43 included in the BRCMSMAC and BRCMFMAC nucleus, as well as the Boadcom Linux proprietary driver called WL. I must say right away that the proprietary driver is completely useless, since it does not support not only the access point of access, but also the illegible regime too.

The standard B43 and BRCMFMAC for the B4313 card are not suitable because they do not work in access points, although these already support the monitor mode. Watch whether your driver’s driver’s access mode is on this page. Only BRCMSMAC is left, which can be forced to give out Wfi Linux. First, we will deal with the nucleus drivers. Now that we have decided what we will use, let’s move on to the Broadcom Linux settings. We look at which driver is loaded:

If there are such lines, then everything is fine and the driver is loaded correctly:

BRCMSMAC 497481 0 Cordic 1024 1 BRCMSMAC BRCMUTIL 4596 1 BRCMSMAC

But if B43 or Broadcom-Wl is loaded, you need to remove them. For example, for B43:

It is better to completely delete the Broadcom Linux proprietary driver from the system if it is installed and add unnecessary drivers to the black list, leaving only BRCMSMAC. So that only it is loaded during the reboot, for this we add such lines to the file /etc /modProbe.D/50-BlackList.Conf:

For network cards of other manufacturers, you should first try to distribute Wi-Fi and only if you can’t try to use another driver.

Setting up wi-fi access point in Ubuntu

To create a Ubuntu access point, first you need to click on the network icon in the upper right corner and select Wi-Fi parameters:

In the menu that opens, click on the sandwich button and select Turn on the access point:

Before activation, the computer will warn you that you will not be able to connect to the Internet via Wi-Fi if the access point is turned on:

Then he will show the name of the network and the password from it, which is created automatically:

Using these data, you can connect to the newly created access point. Everything should work. You can turn it off here, you just need to click on the corresponding switch.

Initial setting Astra Linux

We have already written about the need to transfer state bodies to use domestic office software and analyzed the prerequisites for the transition, procedure and terms in detail. Technical specialists are facing the main task. maintain the possibility of using familiar functions under the control of operating systems included in the register of domestic. Today we will tell you how to get a car to perform a minimum necessary set of office tasks.

After the Astra Linux operating system is installed, it is necessary to make basic settings. Consider the settings of the network connection in Astra Linux Special Edition, the release “Smolensk”.

To verify the work or setting up the network intese (if necessary), we go to the console (Fly terminal) and check which network intenses are now present on the computer using the Sudo runconfig command.

If only the LO integrates is displayed, by default, present in the operating system (from the English loopback. “loop”), this means that it is necessary to edit the file with network intenses, adding the necessary for us.

We open the file through the Nano editor with the rights of the administrator:

Now it contains only 2 lines:

It is necessary to edit this file so that the necessary network intese with the desired static address appears in the network settings of the operating system.

To do this, edit it as follows:

Auto LO ETH0 # This line indicates which intections should be launched # when loading the operating system. added here Eth0 iFace LO Int Loopback # This line is not editing the iFace ETH0 Inet Static # This line indicates that the Address 192 integrates will be further settings.168.111.111 # Computer address Netmask 255.255.255.0 # mask Gateway 192.168.0.1 # gateway

Save the settings in this file (Ctrl X, then Y).

We check in the Fly terminal whether the ETH0 integer is raised. the one whose settings we prescribed:

After this command is executed, we will see the state of the intense. Up or Down. If the status of the Down integration, then you need to raise this integration:

Restart the network support service. If it is necessary to pre.unmask it, the following command should be used:

SUDO SystemSk NetworkManager Sudo Service Networking Restart #Restanation of Service

We check the status of the connection and integrates of the SUDO NMCLI General Status and Sudo NMCLI DEVICE STATUS commands. If all the necessary intenses are included and the connections are installed, the network setting is completed successfully.

In order to add a printer, you must go to the Start menu and select the “control panel” section, then select “Equipment” and “Printers”:

In the window that appears on the toolbar, you need to select the “Printer” item and press “Add”, “Printer” and “Next”.

A window will appear with a list of printers connected to a computer (both network and USB). In this window, you need to select the desired printer, click “Next” and check information about the printer:

Click on the “complete” button, and the installation of the selected printer will be completed. For verification, you can print a test page.

We proceed to installing the package of office programs P7.

To do this, you need to insert the installation disk into the disk or place the file with the Astra Linux image on the desktop (path-/homa/name_s-record/Desktop/Smolensk-1.6-20.06.2018_15.56.ISO) and mount it in CD-ROM.

Consider the installation option when there is no installation disk, but there is an image of Astra Linux.

Sudo Mount/Home/Name of_Skomatnaya_ Record/Desktop/Smolensk-1.6-20.06.2018_15.56.ISO /media /cdrom

From this image you need to install the packages necessary for further installation:

SUDO APT-GET Install Fonts-Crosextra-Carlito Fonts-dejavu Fonts-Liberation Fonts-Opensymbol Curl Gstreamer1.0-Libav gstreamer1.0-Plugins-Ugly Libasound2 Libcair LibGCC1 LibgConf-2-4 Libgtk-3-0 Libstdc6 Libx11-6 Libxss1 X11-Common XDG-Utils

If a message appears about unsatisfied dependencies, you must use the following command:

And then you need to try again to install packages from an admireed disk with Astra Linux:

SUDO APT-GET Install Fonts-Crosextra-Carlito Fonts-dejavu Fonts-Liberation Fonts-Opensymbol Curl Gstreamer1.0-Libav gstreamer1.0-Plugins-Ugly Libasound2 Libcair LibGCC1 LibgConf-2-4 Libgtk-3-0 Libstdc6 Libx11-6 Libxss1 X11-Common XDG-Utils

The next command directly sets the office of P7:

Sudo DPKG.I /Home /Name of_Choading_ Record /Desktop /R7-office.Deb

The resulting car is able to cope with the mandatory minimum of office tasks.

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