Determine the computer number on the network by IP

The address of the document on the Internet (from the English URL. Uniform Resource Locator) consists of the following parts:

  • Data transmission protocol (can be http (for web pages) or FTP (for file transfer) (there is also a secure protocol https)
  • Symbols-undergraduate: //. separating the name of the protocol from the rest of the address
  • The domain name of the site (or IP address)
  • There may also be: catalog on the server where the file is located
  • File name

Catalogs on the server are separated by direct slash ” /”

Select a document from the archive for viewing:

Document selected for viewing 0004F8D9-79025535.DOCX

Organization of computer networks. Addressing.

When the computer is connected to the network in the setting parameters of the TCP protocol (transmission control protocol)/IP (Interseter Protocol) must be indicated by the IP address of the computer and the network mask.

IP address uniquely identifies the node (computer) on the network. The first part of the IP address indicates the address of the network, the second part is the address of the node (computer number).

The network mask shows which part of the IP address of the node belongs to the address of the network, and which-to the address of the node in this network and is necessary to determine which computers are in the same subnet

IP address and mask consist of four decimal numbers separated by dots (each of these numbers is in the interval 0 255). IP address: 192.168.123.132; Mask: 255.255.255.0

always “1” stand ahead, and at the end “0”For example, 255.255.224.0 = 11111111.1111111.11100000.00000000

determine, computer, number, network

the senior bats (left), which value “1” are assigned to the IP address of the computer for the address of the network;

Junior bats (right), which value “0” are assigned to the IP address of the computer for the computer address on the network;

It depends on the number of “0” in the mask how many computers can be connected to this network.

The mask also consists of four numbers (in the interval 0.255),

Determine the serial number of the computer on the network.

IP.Address: 11000000.10101000.0111011.00101010

Mask: 1111111.1111111.1111111.eleven 000000

Zero bits of the masks and the corresponding IP addresses that determine the computer number on the network: 1010102 = 4210 (computer number (node) = 42)

By the specified IP address of the node and the mask, determine the address of the network.

The address of the network is obtained as a result of a category of category (multiplying bit by bit) of the numbers of the mask and numbers of the address of the node (in the binary code).

The result is transferred to the decimal number system: 218.137.216.0. network address

On a given mask, determine the number of computers on the network.

The total number of zero bit. 9 (n)

The number of computers is 2 n: 2 9 = 512

For a node with IP address 111.81.208.27 Network address is 111.81.192.0. What is the smallest possible value of the third on left mask?

We write down the third byte of the IP address and the address of the network in the binary number system:

With what number the conjunction needs to be 110100002. To get 110000002 ? Obviously, the first two digits should be units, and 4th zero.

This is either 11000000, or 11100000. Under the condition of the task, it is required to find the lowest value. this is 11000000. Therefore: 110000002 = 19210

For a node with IP address 98.162.71.94 network address is 98.162.71.64. Which is the largest number of possible addresses in this network?

We write down the fourth byte of the IP address and the address of the network in the binary number system, the third byte is not suitable (71) T.to 01000111 (last units):

Note that the first 3 battles on the left of the network addresses coincide with the IP address, and then zeros are coming. To find, what is the largest number of possible addresses on the network, you need to find the number of zero bit in the last bait masks. So, the value of the last byte of the mask is 11 0000002 = 19210 (max quantity “0”). The number of zeros in the last bait masks is 6.

Therefore, the largest number of possible addresses in this network is 2 6 = 64.

For a node with IP address 98.162.71.94 network address is 98.162.71.64. What is the least of possible addresses in this network?

We write the fourth byte of the IP address and the address of the network in the binary number system:

Note that the first 3 battles on the left of the network addresses coincide with the IP address, and then zeros are coming. To find what is the smallest number of possible addresses on the network, you need to find the number of zero bit in the last bait masks. So, the value of the last byte of the mask is 111 000002 = 22410 (min number “0”, the rule of the mask, on the left “1”, on the right “0”, t.e. After “1” should be “0”). The number of zeros in the last bait masks is 5.

Therefore, the smallest number of possible addresses in this network is 2 5 = 32.

All about IP addresses and how to work with them

Not so long ago I wrote my first article on the Habr. In my article there was one unpleasant roughness, which was instantly discovered, understanding in network administration, users. The roughness is that I indicated incorrect IP addresses in laboratory work. I did this intentionally, because I considered that it would be easier for an inexperienced user to understand the theme of VLAN on a simpler example of IP, but, as it was, quite rightly noticed by users, you can not upload material with a key error.

In the article itself, I did not rule this mistake, since by removing it, our entire discussion in 2 days will be meaningless, but decided to correct it in a separate article with an indication of problems and explanation of the whole topic.

To begin with, it is worth saying what IP address is.

IP addresses-a unique network address of the node in a computer network built on the basis of TCP/IP protocols (TCP/IP is a set of Internet protocols, which we will talk about in further articles). IP address is a series of 32 binary bits (units and zeros). Since a person is immune to a large homogeneous series of numbers, such as this 111000101010001000101011111001110 (here, by the way, 32 bits of information, since 32 numbers in the binary system), it was decided to divide a series into four 8-bit bytes and the following sequence was obtained: 11100010.10100010.00101011.10011110. This did not greatly make life easier and there was a decision to translate this sequence in, familiar to us, a sequence of four numbers in the decimal system, that is, 226.162.43.158. 4 categories are also called octets. This IP address is determined by the IPV4 protocol. According to this addressing scheme, you can create more than 4 billion IP addresses.

The maximum possible number in any octet will be 255 (since there are 8 units in the binary system), and the minimum. 0.

Next, let’s figure out what is called the IP class (it was in this moment that in laboratory work was inaccuracy).

determine, computer, number, network

IP addresses are divided into 5 classes (a, b, c, d, e). A, b and C are classes of commercial addressing. D. for multi.toned mailings, and class E. for experiments.

Class A: 1.0.0.0. 126.0.0.0, mask 255.0.0.Grade 0: 128.0.0.0. 191.255.0.0, mask 255.255.0.Grade 0 C: 192.0.0.0. 223.255.255.0, mask 255.255.255.Grade 0 D: 224.0.0.0. 239.255.255.255, mask 255.255.255.255 Grade E: 240.0.0.0. 247.255.255.255, mask 255.255.255.255

Computer Ka Ip Address Kaise Pata Kare | Laptop Ka Ip Address Kaise Jane

Now about the “color” IP. IP are white and gray (or public and private). A public IP address is the IP address used to enter the Internet. Addresses used in local networks are referring to private. Private IP is not routed on the Internet.

Public addresses are assigned to public web servers so that a person can get to this server, regardless of his location, that is, via the Internet. For example, game servers are public, like Habra servers and many other web resources. The great difference between private and public IP addresses is that using a private IP address, we can assign any number to the computer (the main thing is that there are no coinciding numbers), and with public addresses everything is not so simple. The issuance of public addresses is controlled by various organizations.

Suppose you are a young network engineer and want to give access to your server to all Internet users. To do this, you need to get a public IP address. To get it, you contact your Internet provider, and he gives you a public IP address, but he cannot take it from the sleeve, so he turns to the local Internet to the registrar (Lir. Local Internet Registry), which gives a pack of IP addresses to your provider, A provider from this pack gives you one address. Local Internet registrar cannot issue a pack of addresses from nowhere, so he turns to the regional Internet to the registrar (RIR. Regional Internet Registry). In turn, the regional Internet registrar appeals to the international non.profit organization Iana (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). IANA is controlled by IANA ICANN (Internet corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). Such a complex process is necessary so that there is no confusion in public IP addresses.

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Since we are engaged in the creation of local computing networks (LAN. Local Area Network), we will use precisely private IP addresses. To work with them, you need to understand which addresses are private and which. The table below is private IP addresses, which we will use when building networks.

From the foregoing, we conclude that use when creating a local network should be addresses from the range in the table. When using any other networks of networks, such as 20. or 30. (for example, I took these addresses, as they were used in a lab), there will be big problems with setting up a real network.

From the table of private IP addresses you can see the third column in which the subnet mask is written. The subnet mask is a bit mask that determines what part of the IP address of the network unit belongs to the network address, and which-to the address of the node itself in this network.

All IP addresses have two parts of the network and knot. The network is that part of the IP that does not change throughout the network and all the addresses of the devices begin with the network number. Knot is the changing part IP. Each device has its own unique address on the network, it is called a knot.

It is customary to record the mask in two ways: prefix and decimal. For example, a mask of a private subnet A looks in a decimal record like 255.0.0.0, but not always convenient to use decimal recording when drawing up a network diagram. It is easier to record a mask as a prefix, that is /8.

Since the mask is formed by the addition of a unit from the first octet on the left and nothing else, but to recognize the mask, we just need to know the number of units set.

Solving tasks

In the terminology of TCP/IP networks, a binary number is called a binary number that determines which part of the IP address of the network node relates to the network address, and which-to the address of the node itself in this network. Typically, the mask is recorded according to the same rules as the IP address-in the form of four bytes, and each byte is recorded as a decimal number. At the same time, in the mask, first (in senior discharges) there are units, and then from a certain category. zeros. The address of the network is obtained as a result of the use of a category of category to a given IP address of the node and mask.

For example, if the IP address of the node is 211.132.255.41, and the mask is 255.255.201.0, then the network address is 211.132.201.0

For a node with IP address 200.fifteen.70.23 The network address is 200.fifteen.64.0. What is the smallest possible value of the third on left mask? Write the answer in the form of a decimal number.

  • The third byte on the left corresponds to the number 70 in the IP address and 64-in the network address
  • The address of the network is the result of a detachment conjunction of the mask and IP address in the binary system:
  • The smallest possible result of the mask can be:

Here the oldest bit is taken per unit (although zero is possible), since the guaranteed unit is followed. As you know, units are first in the mask, and then zeros (it cannot be like that: 0100, or maybe only this: 1100)

12 Task. Demo version of the exam 2018 Informatics:

In the terminology of TCP/IP networks, a binary number is called a binary number that determines which part of the IP address of the network node relates to the network address, and which-to the address of the node itself in this network. Typically, the mask is recorded according to the same rules as the IP address-in the form of four bytes, and each byte is recorded as a decimal number. At the same time, in the mask, first (in senior discharges) there are units, and then from a certain category. zeros. The address of the network is obtained as a result of the use of a category of category to a given IP address of the node and mask.

For example, if the IP address of the node is 231.32.255.131, and the mask is 255.255.240.0, then the network address is 231.32.240.0.

For a node with IP address 57.179.208.27 network address is 57.179.192.0. What is the largest possible number of units in the categories of the mask?

  • Since the address of the network is obtained as a result of the use of a category of category to the given IP address of the node and the mask, we will get:
  • Since the first two bytes on the left in the IP address of the node and the address of the network coincide, it means that all units should be in the mask with a category of category in the binary system. T.e. 111111112 = 25510
  • In order to find the remaining two bytes of masks, it is necessary to translate the corresponding bytes in the IP address and the network address to the 2nd number system. Let’s do it:
  • Now let’s see what a mask for a given byte can be. We will numb the bits of the mask from right to left:
  • For the 5th bit we get: ? 0 = 0. The mask can be both unit and 0. But since on the assignment we ask the greatest possible number of units, it means we must say that in the mask it is 1.
  • For the 4th bit we get: ? 1 = 0. Only 0 can be in the mask.
  • Since there are only a few in the mask, and then all the zeros, then after that zero in the 4th bite all the rest will be zeros. And the 4th on the left byte of the mask will be 010.
  • We get a mask: 11111111.1111111.11100000.00000000. Units in a mask: 8 8 3 = 19

Solution of Task 12 (Poles to., Option 33):

If the mask is subnet 255.255.255.128 and IP addresses of a computer on the network 122.191.12.189, the computer number on the network is _

  • Single bits of the mask (equal to unit) determine the address of the subnet, t.to. The address of the subnet is the result of a category of category conjunction (logical multiplication) of Bits masks with IP addresses.
  • The rest of the mask (starting from the first zero) determines the computer number.
  • Since in the binary representation the number 255 is eight units (11111111), with a category of category with any number, the same number is returned (1 ∧ 0 = 0; 1 ∧ 1 = 1). Thus, those bytes in a mask that are equal to numbers 255, we will not consider, t.to. They determine the address of the subnet.
  • Let’s start consideration by byte equal to 128. He corresponds to the byte 189 IP address. We transfer these numbers into a binary number system:
  • Those bits of the IP address that correspond to the zero bits of the mask are used to determine the computer number. We transfer the resulting binary number to the decimal number system:

Solution of Task 12 (Poles to., Option 41):

In the terminology of the TCP/IP networks, the 32-bit binary number is called the mask of the subnet, which determines which exactly the categories of the IP address of the computer are common to the entire subnet-in these categories of the mask costs 1. Typically, masks are recorded in the form of four decimal numbers-according to the same rules as the IP address.

Mask 255 is used for some subnet.255.255.192. How many different addresses of computers theoretically allow this mask if two addresses (the address of the network and broadcasting) do not use?

We proceed to the decision

Ⅰ) We transfer numbers 168 and 160 into a binary number system.

The number 168 in the binary system will be 101010002.

The number 160 in the binary system will be 101000002.

Ⅱ) Record the byte of the IP address and under it, missing the free line for the Bayt mask, write down the byte of the network address. There are already 8 categories in each binary number, so you do not need to supplement the senior categories zeros.

It can be seen that you can put five zeros on the right in the bait masks.

In the sixth category on the right, it is no longer possible to put 0, because 1 0 will be 0, but should be 1! Plus, if we put a unit, then only a few should go left so that the main rule of compiling a mask is not violated.

Note: We scored zero to the maximum of the byte mask, but it would also be correct to present the byte mask in this form 111100002, but this idea does not make the byte mask minimal in numerical meaning.

We transfer to the decimal system the resulting minimum of the possible in the numerical value of bytes masks 111000002.

0 2 0 0 2 1 0 2 2 0 2 3 0 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 6 1 2 7 = 224 Answer: 224

Task (USE in computer science, 2019, Moscow)

In the terminology of TCP/IP networks, a binary number is called a binary number that determines which part of the IP address of the network node relates to the network address and which. To the address of the node itself in this network. Usually the mask is recorded by the rules as the IP address. in the form of four bytes, and each byte is recorded as a decimal number. At the same time, in the mask, first (in senior discharges) there are units, and then from a certain category. zeros. The address of the network is obtained as a result of the use of a category of category to a given IP address of the node and mask.

For example, if the IP address of the node is 231.32.255.131, and the mask is 255.255.240.0, then the network address is 231.32. 240.0.

For a node with IP address 113.191.169.34 Network address is 113.191.160.0

Which is the largest possible number of zeros in the categories of the network mask?

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In this task, you need to understand what the maximum number of zeros in the entire mask can be (in 4 bytes).

We will write out the IP address, under it the address of the network, by skipping a line where we write down the mask bytes.

The first two bytes on the left are 255 (11111112), because two numbers on the left of the IP address are equal to two numbers on the left of the network address.

The second byte of the mask on the right already has in its categories a certain number of zeros, t.to. The corresponding numbers of the IP address and the addresses of the network are distinguished! The difference can only make zeros in the bait masks!

It can be seen that the zeros begin in the second on the right by the Bay masks, and if the zeros went, then they can’t stop them, so the very first byte of the mask on the right is completely filled, and in the binary system it is 8 zeros. Because of this, the right byte of the network address is also completely stuck! (After all, each category of binary representation of the number 34 is multiplied by 0)

Let us analyze the second byte mask on the right.

1) We transfer the numbers 169 and 160 to the binary system.

The number 160 was translated in the previous task. It turned out the number 101000002.

It turned out that the number 169 in the binary system 101010012.

2) write out the byte of the IP address and under it, by missing the line for the Bayt mask, byte of the network address.

We start to score by zero on the right byte mask. Five zeros can be recorded, because in 5 categories to the right are the addresses of the network zeros, and the logical multiplication of the categories will be correctly executed.

In the sixth category on the right in Bay, the network addresses cost 1. In the appropriate category of byte IP address is also 1. So, in the corresponding category of the byte, the mask should also be 1. (If we put zero will turn out 10 = 1, which is incorrect!).

If the units have gone left, then they also cannot be stopped in the Bay masks.

Note: The value of 111100002 for the Bayt mask was acceptable, but we need the maximum number of zeros!

5 zeros in the bait masks, and in the right bait 8 zeros. So, the answer will be 5 8 = 13 zeros in the entire mask.

In the terminology of TCP/IP networks, a binary number is called a binary number that determines which part of the IP address of the network node relates to the network address, and which-to the address of the node itself in this network. At the same time, in the mask, first (in senior discharges) there are units, and then from some place. zeros. Typically, the mask is recorded according to the same rules as the IP address-in the form of four bytes, and each byte is recorded as a decimal number. The address of the network is obtained as a result of the use of a category of category to a given IP address of the node and mask.

What is a subnet mask and how to find out a subnet mask | Your network

The mask of the subnet is understood to mean a 32-bit number composed of units and zeros. A mask from a sequence of units begins, and ends with a sequence of zeros. It is applied to the IP address. The part of the address on which the units are superimposed is determined by the address of the network. Zeros are superimposed on the rest. it is assigned to the addressing of hosts.

Calculation of the subnet masks

The network address is composed of two parts. the address of the network and host. Before the appearance of masks, experts used the methods of class separation of networks. But the number of hosts on the Web became very large, and the number of networks allocated for them turned out to be very limited. Therefore, an additional idea was needed, which was embodied in a mask. She allowed in different classes of networks to highlight many subnets with different hosts.

Find IP Address | How to find Ip address of any device on windows ( LAN&WAN )

determine, computer, number, network

If you are interested in how to find out your IP address, subnet mask and the main gateway, we also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the articles how to determine the IP address and how to find out the main gateway in the local network, where these network parameters are considered in detail. Here we will dwell on what a mask of subnet is, how to calculate the subnet mask, and how to find out the mask of the subnet of our computer.

The network administrator, having received a certain network address at the disposal, has the opportunity to divide it into a number of subnets (or can use it without separation). Why divide the received address? In different networks, you need to connect a different number of computers-somewhere you need to connect only 10 hosts, and somewhere more than 30.

It will be much more convenient if these “quantities” are connected in different subnets with communication through the router.

For example, we will define a mask for a class C network. It is known from the agreement that the first, second and third bytes of the 32-bit number are assigned to the address of networks of this class. The fourth remains for the distribution of hosts. Then the recording of the mask in a point-dual notation looks like this:

As you can see, the first 24 bits are installed, and the last 8 dropped. Thus, the mask in decimal format will receive this type: 255.255.255.0. The following /24. Prefix.

Subtess mask table

The mask allows you to highlight a whole set of class C networks, as well as network addresses of other types. In the previous example, a mask for a standard class of class from. However, if you drop the extreme unit to zero, then we will get the next record 255.255.254.0 or /23. With such a mask, we can get 2 class C networks, since the discarded unit can be restored. Record with 17 units will allow you to address 128 class networks at once.

In order to facilitate the understanding of the Besclass Address (CIDR), whole tables of conformity of prefixes, masks, the number of connected hosts and classes of networks are created. The network administrator does not need to calculate the masks, the number of networks and hosts on their own. It is enough to only look into the list of conformity to answer the question which mask to choose if necessary to connect a specific number of working stations.

So, if the administrator needs to connect 30 workstations, then the network mask should end with 5 zeros. Indeed, 5 zeros are enough to number nodes, since 2 in degree 5 is 32.

In this case, the node with five zero is responsible for the network number, and the knot with 5 units is broadcasting. Accordingly, three senior bits should be filled with units, like three previous bytes, so the mask should take on the form:

1111111.1111111.1111111.11100000 or 255.255.255.224.

Instead of calculations, the administrator can use the data from the correspondence tables.

How to find out the subnet mask in Windows

The mask of the subnet according to the IP address cannot be unambiguously determined. However, information about the mask is stored on routers, in operating systems. In Windows, you can determine it in several ways. A lot of information about the network configuration can be removed through the command line.

If the IPCONFIG command is in the text line terminal, then the network utility will withdraw all the information about the network configuration, including the subnet mask to which this PC belongs.

You can find out the mask in graphic mode. Windows provides special tools for this. To do this, you need to go to the network control center

and find there the adapter through which the external network is carried out.

Next, you will need to cause his information about the state,

where is it enough to open the window of connection about the connection.

In the list that opens, it is easy to detect the item point IPV4 subnet mask.

Here is a mask of the subnet, to which the workstation belongs.

2.1. Introduction

The structure of the IP address is one of the most important topics for understanding the principles of the IP protocol, this topic is very closely related to routing, the mechanism of class networks and the mechanism of the mask of the variable liger, if you do not understand the IP address structure, of course, you, of course. you will not experience problems in order to configure on your PC Internet access, but you will not have an understanding of the principles of IP networks. I hope I convinced you that the topic is important, albeit small.

The IP protocol has two very important things that made it ubiquitous. The first is the header of the IP package that determines the functionality of the protocol, and the second is an IP address that, it should be noted, is part of the heading, but it is worth talking about it separately than we are now and we will do it. I am more than sure that you have already seen the IP address and, moreover, worked with them, but if not, then here is an example: 192.168.one.0. For a person IP address in the IPV4 protocol, most often presented in this form.

There is nothing complicated here. For us, the IP address is divided into four pieces, the separator between the pieces is a point, each such piece is one byte or one octet, therefore, the maximum possible number that can be recorded equally 255, and the minimum number is zero. It turns out that purely theoretically, you can use addresses from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. True, part of these addresses is reserved for special needs, we will discuss this in a separate topic. Now we will assume that two in the thirty-second degree of IP addresses or 4,294,967,296, which are already catastrophically lacking, so there is a smooth introduction of the IPV6 protocol occur.

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In fact, the IP address is not just four numbers separated by points, but a more interesting and complex essence. Firstly, it should be noted that the routers do not know the decimal number system, as well as subscriber nodes, for them the IP address is represented by a set of zeros and units in our case (192.168.one.0), the IP address for the car looks somehow: 11000000 (192) 10101000 (168) 00000001 (1) 000000 (0). In this case, I divided the octets in gaps, I think everything is obvious here: each byte is eight binary values ​​(0 or 1), and in total four bytes are allocated for the IP address, that is, 32 bits, hence two to thirty thirty of thirty second degree of IP addresses.

I immediately made a reservation that the IP address is a more complex thing than it seems at first glance. The thing is that the IP address includes two parameters that allow you to identify the node in the global network: the number of the node and the network number. In general, the IP protocol provides for two mechanisms for breaking the IP address into network number and node number. The first mechanism is called class addressing, and the second mechanism is called CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) or non-class addressing. In this topic, we will make a superficial overview of these mechanisms, and in the future we will deal with them in detail.

Now we will make a small digression and talk about bytes and bats, and to be more accurate, then about the order of numbering bytes and bits in Bay. For example, take the IP address 192.168.one.0 and write it in binary form.

2.1 Octtens and Bit numbers in the IP address

The table shows the numbering of octets and bit in octets as it is implemented in the networks of the TCP/IP model. This numbering is fair for the IP address separately and for the entire IP package header. The extreme left byte or the very first byte is called the senior and its serial number zero, the last byte is the youngest and its serial number three. The same applies to the bats: the oldest bit has a serial number zero, and the youngest bit in Bay has serial number seven. This numbering is called from the older to the younger or big-endian, sometimes this order is called network order.

By the way, if you have an Intel architecture processor, then it numbers bytes and bats in the reverse order, that is, from the younger to the older, Big-endian or Intelsky number of numbering. There is also a mixed order and switched order, but this is not very interesting for us. Why are computer networks a direct order is used? Yes, it is very simple, the fact is that in this order it is more convenient to compare the numbers, and the network devices mainly only do what they compare that which came in packages with what is recorded in their configurations or memory.

Fundamentals of computer networks. The topic is the concept of IP addressing, subnet masks and their calculation

Greetings on the next issue. And today we will talk about what IP addresses are and how to use them. What is a subnet mask, as it is considered, and why it is needed. How to divide networks into subnets and summarize them. Interested I invite to read.

P.S. Perhaps over time the list will be supplemented.

Let’s start, or already continue, from the most popular, visiting and patient. This is an IP address. For 4 articles, this concept has been found several times, and most likely you yourself either understood why they were, or they went over and read about them. But I must tell you this, because without a clear understanding it will be hard to move on.

So the IP address is the address used by the node at the network level. It has a hierarchical structure. What does it mean? This means that each figure in its writing carries a certain meaning. I will explain with a very good example. An example will be the number of a regular phone. 74951234567. The first number is 7. This suggests that the number belongs to the area further follows 495. This is the code of Moscow. And the last 7 digits I took random. These numbers are assigned to the district zone. As you can see here, a clear hierarchy is observed here. That is, by number you can understand which country, the zone belongs. IP addresses adhere to a similar strict hierarchy. Controls their organization Iana (English. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). If in Russian, then this is the “Administration of the address space of the Internet”. Note that the word “Internet” with a capital letter. Few people attach a meaning to this, so I will explain the difference. In the English literature, the term “Internet” is used to describe several networks connected to each other. And the term “Internet” to describe the global network. So accept this for note.

Despite the fact that the theme of the article is more theoretical than practical, I strongly recommend that you take it with all seriousness, since the understanding of further topics, and especially routing, depends on it. Not for anyone, I think, it’s no secret that we are used to perceiving numerical information in decimal format (in numbers from 0-9). However, all modern computers perceive information in binary (0 and 1). It doesn’t matter by current or light information transmitted. All of it will be perceived by the device as a signal is (1) or not (0). Only 2 values. Therefore, an algorithm of translation from the binary system to decimal, and vice versa was invented. I’ll start with a simple one and tell you what the IP addresses in decimal format look like. All this article is devoted to IP addresses of version 4. About version 6 will be a separate article. In previous articles, Labah, and indeed in life, you saw something like this “193.233.44.12″. This is the IP address in decimal recording. It consists of 4 numbers called octets and separated by points. Each such number (octet) can take a value from 0 to 255. That is, one of 256 values. The length of each octet is 8 bits, and the total length IPV4 = 32 bits. Now an interesting question. How this address will perceive the computer, and how it will work with it?

You can certainly fill it into a calculator, of which in bulk on the Internet, and he will transfer it to a binary format, but I believe that everyone should be able to translate manually. This is especially true for those who plan to take the exam. You will not have anything at hand except paper and marker, and you will only have to rely on your skills. Therefore, I show how to do it manually. A table is being built.

Instead of “x”, either 1 or 0 is recorded. The table is divided into 8 columns, each of which carries 1 bit (8 columns = 8 bits = 1 octet). They are located in seniority from left to right. That is, the first (left) bit is the oldest and has number 128, and the last (right) is the youngest and has number 1. Now I will explain where these numbers came from. Since the system is binary, and the length of the octet is 8 bits, each number is obtained by the construction of the number 2 to degree from 0 to 7. And each of the received numbers is recorded in the table from larger to smaller. That is, from left to right. From 2 to 7th degree to 2 to 0 degree. I will give a table of degrees 2-ki.

I think now it is clear how the table is being built. Let’s now analyze the address “193.233.44.12 “and see how it looks in binary format. We will analyze each octet separately. Take the number 193 and see what tabular combinations it gets. 128 64 1 = 193.

Those numbers that participated in the formation of the combination receive 1, and everyone else receives 0.

We take the first octet 233. 128 64 32 8 1.

It turns out a long.bit sequence 11000001.11101001.00101100.00001100. It is with this type that network devices work. A bit sequence is reversible. You can also insert each octet (8 characters each) into the table and get a decimal record. I will present a completely random sequence and bring it to the decimal form. Let it be 11010101.10110100.11000001.00000011. I build a table and bring the first block into it.

Collect the results of calculations and get the address 213.180.193.3. Nothing heavy, pure arithmetic. If it’s hard and straight by unbearably difficult, then practice. At first it may seem terrible, as many have completed their studies 10 years ago and have forgotten a lot. But I assure you that as soon as you fill your hand, it will be much easier to consider. Well, to fix it, I will give you a few examples for independent calculation (there will be answers under the spoiler, but open them only when you are giving up yourself).

1) 10.124.56.220 2) 113.72.101.11 3) 173.143.32.194 4) 200.69.139.217 5) 88.212.236.76 6) 01011101.10111011.01001000.00110000 7) 01001000.10100011.00000100.10100001 8) 00001111.11011001.11101000.11110101 9) 01000101.00010100.00111011.01010000 10) 00101011.11110011.10000010.0011101

1) 00001010.01111100.00111000.11011100 2) 01110001.01001000.01100101.00001011 3) 10101101.10001111.00100000.11000010 4) 11001000.01000101.10001011.11011001 5) 01011000.11010100.11101100.01001100 6) 93.187.72.48 7) 72.163.4.161 8) 15.217.232.245 9) 69.20.59.80 10) 43.243.130.61

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