Checking 4K TVs

check, dead, pixels, 3840x2160

  • Defective pixels. This defect manifests itself only under certain conditions. If a pixel is completely inoperative, it is easy to see with the naked eye, but a partial defect is not so easy to notice. Each point is formed from three components of different colors (red, green and blue). If one of the pixels starts to work incorrectly, then one of the points is displayed in a wrong color. If the diagonal of the screen is about 50 inches, the “saboteur” can be calculated using test pictures or 4K clips. In this case, the TV check is performed as follows: the screen displays content with patterns, stripes or evenly alternating shapes. If there are elements that are not functioning correctly, they will be highlighted in the general row.
  • Backlight uniformity testing. A black fill will help here. If light spots appear on different parts of the screen or white characters on a black background, then the TV is defective. Uneven backlighting is not considered a serious defect by most manufacturers and therefore does not constitute a basis for returning the TV.
  • The presence of colored spots. Pay particular attention to the white fill. The defect appears as green or pink areas on a white background. Experts also recommend checking the TV for banding. This flaw is easily recognizable by the developing stripes of other colors. It is easier to find when watching videos that show homogeneous areas as the camera moves.

Not all high-definition TVs allow 4K video viewing. When buying a receiver, you should pay attention to whether it has a sticker with the inscription “Ultra HD”. It’s also worth finding out what standard it complies with. TV must play content with a resolution of at least 3840 x 2160 pixels and a minimum frame rate of 60 units per second.

4K videos for checking TV

Digital technologies are developing at a rapid pace, and today viewers can enjoy such a clear and perfect picture that a few decades ago it seemed fantastic.

Modern TV receivers reproduce a wide variety of video formats, including 4K. For comparison, a Full HD picture has a horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels, while 4K is characterized by about 4000 pixels. Buying a new TV is a crucial step, and if a consumer is ready to pay a round sum for a plasma panel, he must make sure that the purchased product is worth that kind of money.

4K TV rating

To choose a good TV, it is recommended to study the rating of 4K devices. The most popular manufacturers are LG and Samsung. They compete with each other in different areas, including display technologies. If a user wants to buy an inexpensive 4K TV, he should pay attention to the Samsung UE43RU7400U or LG 43UK6750 model. Philips 43PUS6503 can also be included in this category.

From the middle class category, it is worth highlighting Samsung UE49RU8000U (about 43,000 rubles) and LG49SK8100 (about 45,000 rubles).

Sony is a serious brand. Having financial capabilities, you can pay attention to the KD-49 XF8596 model, its.

Sony KD-49 XF8596

Premium-class products can boast of wider functionality, including the presence of Smart technology. The ranking includes Samsung QE55Q90RAU and Sony KD-55XF9005. If we compare them in price, then the first model is estimated at about 154,000 rubles, and the second costs about 65,000 rubles.

Among the best 4K OLED panels, LG OLED65C8, Sony KD55AF9 and Panasonic TX-65FZR800 occupy special positions in the ranking. Their.

Program

Recovery is possible due to a quick change in the colors of adjacent points. We can say this: at this time, the subpixels receive a large amount of energy, which allows them to be “revived” and repaired. Such technology can help to restore at least half of the “broken” points, and sometimes all 90%. But in terms of time, each time the recovery process takes a different time. It is also possible that the restored pixel will “get stuck” again (this happens especially often in the heat. under the influence of temperature). That is, there are cases when it is impossible to completely “cure” a broken pixel.

Let’s list the programs that help to remove the “broken” pixels.

  • Undead pixel. The program offers to first find deformed pixels by filling the screen, “defective” elements will be visible on different backgrounds. When the diagnosis is made, you can take directly for the “treatment”. First, it is prescribed to set the parameters with the number of squares, then select the size of one square in pixels and set the rate of their update according to the sample. After the start, flickering squares move to defective places. When the pixel blinks, it is already a success. You just need to wait for the “stuck” pixel to disappear. True, if you have to wait more than 10 hours, most likely this particular pixel will not recover.
  • JScreenFix. This is a site, not a program, but free and convenient. It restores pixels in much the same way as the previous tool does. But the parameters cannot be changed during the operation, just as it is impossible to work on the computer at this time (when it comes to restoring pixels on the monitor). The service identifies an area with digital noise, it can be moved to the required area of ​​the TV.
  • PixelFixel. This is a YouTube video and needs to be played overnight. The duration of the video is 12 hours. The colors in it change so quickly that a person may simply feel dizzy (there are warnings even about epileptic seizures). But none of this will happen if you just do not look at the monitor while the restore roller is running.

Each such program, site, video may have analogs. A lot of tools have been developed for Windows to deal with “broken” pixels.

You should try those that are clear in the instructions. If an advertisement promises to get rid of defective elements in 10 minutes, you should not be carried out on such a promise. Such a quick “treatment” is not always possible, and the initial “diagnosis” decides a lot. Mostly popular programs work by quickly cycling colors.

Broken pixels on TV: what is it and how to remove it?

In all liquid crystal displays, the resulting picture is formed by pixels. The pixel grid is the three separate pixels of red, blue and green that are responsible for the full image formation. And each such subpixel has its own transistor, it controls its on / off. Broken pixels on a TV are a problem that theoretically every consumer can face. And it would be nice to know what it is and how to fix the situation.

How many dead pixels are allowed?

The most interesting thing is that the manufacturer does not evaluate the appearance of dead pixels as a manufacturing defect. And if you send them a complaint, they will most likely not satisfy it. precisely, they will refer to norms with an acceptable number of dead pixels.

Each manufacturer has its own standards for the number of deformed elements. It depends on the location, resolution, screen diagonal. For example, top companies, and these are LG and Samsung, consider no more than 2 black pixels (that is, truly broken) permissible and no more than 5 functioning incorrectly per 1 million points. This means that 4K resolution is represented by 8 million matrix units, that is, a TV can contain no more than 16 defective pixels and 40 bits.

If the TV-display is found to exceed this limit, the manufacturer must replace the TV or provide service within the warranty period.

But defective pixels may appear during the operation of the TV after the expiration of the warranty period, and in this case the manufacturer is not obliged to change or repair anything.

How to check?

Important! With the TV, everything is in order, if on one of the backgrounds of the indicated colors it is not possible to determine, to see the defective area. If not a single point is knocked out of the general background, the technique has been successfully tested for “broken” pixels.

You can and instrumentally check the device for defective pixels.

  • Dead Pixel Tester. This is one of the simplest and most popular Windows utilities. After starting it, you should set the mode, then just inspect the screen.
  • InjuredPixels is another free and easy-to-use Windows application. You can switch colors with the mouse or special arrows.
  • Dead Pixel Buddy is an online diagnostic and treatment service that comes in a set of colors. Works in all browsers, mobile also loads well. It is important not to forget to make full screen mode.
  • LCD DeadPixel Test is another handy proven online assistant. A color is selected, the window is expanded to full screen and everything is checked according to the same scheme as suggested by the programs above.
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Basically, the consumer will have to rely on their eyesight, because if the buyer has problems with this, then it is worth bringing along someone who is confident in his own vigilance.

Attention! For new TVs with a large diagonal, the pixel response time should be between 5 ms and below.

Troubleshooting methods

Black pixels, as stated above, are the result of damage to the transistor. It is impossible to fix this without replacing the specified components. And it’s not that it’s impossible to do it at home, but in the laboratory it’s difficult. But the colored dots, the true “broken” pixels, try to eliminate yourself really.

There are two ways to solve the problem: programmatically and manually.

Reasons for the appearance

There are many reasons why a pixel can become deformed. Of course, in some cases they amount to a violation of production technologies. If the technological process is violated, then the defectiveness of the final process is more than possible. But such cases are usually not difficult to establish with the help of technical expertise.

Other causes of dead pixels:

  • overheating / overcooling of the TV. very high and very low temperatures force the subpixels to solidify, and therefore they can no longer move inside the liquid crystals;
  • high humidity. such conditions are dangerous for the LCD substrate, as soon as moisture gets on the matrix, there are overexposed areas or white dots;
  • voltage drops. a power outage can damage the transistor, which is why the energy supplied to the RGB matrix forces the subpixels to fix in a certain position (freeze);
  • the use of a screen for displaying static content. if the TV shows the same picture for a long time, the display transistor may burn out, and the crystals “freeze” because of this.

Finally, damage to the matrix cannot be ruled out during the careless transportation of the TV. And although a firm fixation is organized in the substrate, sharp mechanical shocks can damage the liquid crystals.

What it is?

A liquid crystal display is technically difficult to create. Therefore, problems associated with poor TV performance cannot always be solved on your own.

Some popular physics:

  • LCD-screens (on which dead pixels can appear) are “ergonomic”, therefore, thanks to them, TVs have become thinner;
  • such screens conduct electricity better, as a result, better video signal;
  • the radiation level in these devices is lower;
  • the entire outer surface of the LCD TV display matrix is ​​divided into small dots, which are called pixels;
  • it is the pixels that take on the function of visualizing the change in orientation and constant movement of liquid crystals under the influence of an electric field;
  • in a normal state, the pixels are not visible to the human eye, but if they are deformed, then this becomes a hindrance to viewing.

Broken pixels on a TV are various abnormal pixels that are noticeable. This is what the average man thinks. In fact, this explanation is not entirely correct.

Directly broken (or dead) pixels on the screen will be those whose control transistor has become faulty. These pixels don’t glow, they just stay black. These elements fly out of the matrix grid. Against a white background, such pixels look most noticeable.

Do not confuse dead pixels with frozen ones. Stuck is an element that glows red, green, blue, or white. They are perfectly visible on a black background. There is such a “freeze” when the subpixel “slows down” during the color update.

Manual

There is also a manual correction method, which involves a direct physical impact on the screen. Of course, the risks of injury to the monitor with such “treatment” are also high, therefore, it is better for those who are unsure of their abilities not to even try to save the TV manually. This method does not always work.

The principle of the manual method is as follows:

  • you must first find the glowing pixel, and then turn off the TV;
  • take a cotton swab or pencil with an eraser on the tip;
  • several times very delicately you need to press on the place where the pixel is hovering on the screen;
  • wait 10 minutes, then turn on the TV and evaluate the result.

The method works, rather, according to the principle “lucky. not lucky”. And even the disappearance of frozen pixels does not guarantee that they will not appear again.

Some craftsmen decide to combine the software method with the manual one. The risks remain in this case. The good news is that broken pixels sometimes disappear on their own (often, in fact). Bad news. you cannot fix a TV once and for all, insuring it against the appearance of defective elements.

Many experts assure: if there are few “broken” pixels, they do not interfere with watching TV, it is better not to touch them in any way. The same, by the way, applies to laptops, computers, phones. If you can’t cope with the problem of pixel freezing, you need to take the device to a service center, and the specialists will “cure” the TV with the tools they have.

How to remove a broken pixel, see below.

Broken pixels on TV: what is it and how to remove it?

In all liquid crystal displays, the resulting picture is formed by pixels. The pixel grid is the three separate pixels of red, blue and green that are responsible for the full image formation. And each such subpixel has its own transistor, it controls its on / off. Broken pixels on a TV are a problem that theoretically every consumer can face. And it would be nice to know what it is and how to fix the situation.

How many dead pixels are allowed?

The most interesting thing is that the manufacturer does not evaluate the appearance of dead pixels as a manufacturing defect. And if you send them a complaint, they will most likely not satisfy it. precisely, they will refer to norms with an acceptable number of dead pixels.

Each manufacturer has its own standards for the number of deformed elements. It depends on the location, resolution, screen diagonal. For example, top companies, and these are LG and Samsung, consider no more than 2 black pixels (that is, truly broken) permissible and no more than 5 functioning incorrectly per 1 million points. This means that 4K resolution is represented by 8 million matrix units, that is, a TV can contain no more than 16 defective pixels and 40 bits.

If the TV-display is found to exceed this limit, the manufacturer must replace the TV or provide service within the warranty period.

But defective pixels may appear during the operation of the TV after the expiration of the warranty period, and in this case the manufacturer is not obliged to change or repair anything.

Program

Recovery is possible due to a quick change in the colors of adjacent points. We can say this: at this time, the subpixels receive a large amount of energy, which allows them to be “revived” and repaired. Such technology can help to restore at least half of the “broken” points, and sometimes all 90%. But in terms of time, each time the recovery process takes a different time. It is also possible that the restored pixel will “get stuck” again (this happens especially often in the heat. under the influence of temperature). That is, there are cases when it is impossible to completely “cure” a broken pixel.

Let’s list the programs that help to remove the “broken” pixels.

  • Undead pixel. The program offers to first find deformed pixels by filling the screen, “defective” elements will be visible on different backgrounds. When the diagnosis is made, you can take directly for the “treatment”. First, it is prescribed to set the parameters with the number of squares, then select the size of one square in pixels and set the rate of their update according to the sample. After the start, flickering squares move to defective places. When the pixel blinks, it is already a success. You just need to wait for the “stuck” pixel to disappear. True, if you have to wait more than 10 hours, most likely this particular pixel will not recover.
  • JScreenFix. This is a site, not a program, but free and convenient. It restores pixels in much the same way as the previous tool does. But the parameters cannot be changed during the operation, just as it is impossible to work on the computer at this time (when it comes to restoring pixels on the monitor). The service identifies an area with digital noise, it can be moved to the required area of ​​the TV.
  • PixelFixel. This is a YouTube video and needs to be played overnight. The duration of the video is 12 hours. The colors in it change so quickly that a person may simply feel dizzy (there are warnings even about epileptic seizures). But none of this will happen if you just do not look at the monitor while the restore roller is running.
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Each such program, site, video may have analogs. A lot of tools have been developed for Windows to deal with “broken” pixels.

You should try those that are clear in the instructions. If an advertisement promises to get rid of defective elements in 10 minutes, you should not be carried out on such a promise. Such a quick “treatment” is not always possible, and the initial “diagnosis” decides a lot. Mostly popular programs work by quickly cycling colors.

Reasons for the appearance

There are many reasons why a pixel can become deformed. Of course, in some cases they amount to a violation of production technologies. If the technological process is violated, then the defectiveness of the final process is more than possible. But such cases are usually not difficult to establish with the help of technical expertise.

Other causes of dead pixels:

  • overheating / overcooling of the TV. very high and very low temperatures force the subpixels to solidify, and therefore they can no longer move inside the liquid crystals;
  • high humidity. such conditions are dangerous for the LCD substrate, as soon as moisture gets on the matrix, there are overexposed areas or white dots;
  • voltage drops. a power outage can damage the transistor, which is why the energy supplied to the RGB matrix forces the subpixels to fix in a certain position (freeze);
  • the use of a screen for displaying static content. if the TV shows the same picture for a long time, the display transistor may burn out, and the crystals “freeze” because of this.

Finally, damage to the matrix cannot be ruled out during the careless transportation of the TV. And although a firm fixation is organized in the substrate, sharp mechanical shocks can damage the liquid crystals.

Troubleshooting methods

Black pixels, as stated above, are the result of damage to the transistor. It is impossible to fix this without replacing the specified components. And it’s not that it’s impossible to do it at home, but in the laboratory it’s difficult. But the colored dots, the true “broken” pixels, try to eliminate yourself really.

There are two ways to solve the problem: programmatically and manually.

How to check?

Important! With the TV, everything is in order, if on one of the backgrounds of the indicated colors it is not possible to determine, to see the defective area. If not a single point is knocked out of the general background, the technique has been successfully tested for “broken” pixels.

You can and instrumentally check the device for defective pixels.

  • Dead Pixel Tester. This is one of the simplest and most popular Windows utilities. After starting it, you should set the mode, then just inspect the screen.
  • InjuredPixels is another free and easy-to-use Windows application. You can switch colors with the mouse or special arrows.
  • Dead Pixel Buddy is an online diagnostic and treatment service that comes in a set of colors. Works in all browsers, mobile also loads well. It is important not to forget to make full screen mode.

ULTIMATE 4K HD. FIX Stuck Pixel Dead Pixel 4096p 60FPS Pixel REPAIR. 1 HOUR FULL 4K HD

  • LCD DeadPixel Test is another handy proven online assistant. A color is selected, the window is expanded to full screen and everything is checked according to the same scheme as suggested by the programs above.

Basically, the consumer will have to rely on their eyesight, because if the buyer has problems with this, then it is worth bringing along someone who is confident in his own vigilance.

Attention! For new TVs with a large diagonal, the pixel response time should be between 5 ms and below.

What it is?

A liquid crystal display is technically difficult to create. Therefore, problems associated with poor TV performance cannot always be solved on your own.

Some popular physics:

  • LCD-screens (on which dead pixels can appear) are “ergonomic”, therefore, thanks to them, TVs have become thinner;
  • such screens conduct electricity better, as a result, better video signal;
  • the radiation level in these devices is lower;
  • the entire outer surface of the LCD TV display matrix is ​​divided into small dots, which are called pixels;
  • it is the pixels that take on the function of visualizing the change in orientation and constant movement of liquid crystals under the influence of an electric field;
  • in a normal state, the pixels are not visible to the human eye, but if they are deformed, then this becomes a hindrance to viewing.

Broken pixels on a TV are various abnormal pixels that are noticeable. This is what the average man thinks. In fact, this explanation is not entirely correct.

Check Your Screen for Dead Pixel/Stuck Pixel (up to 4K UHD) PixelFixel

Directly broken (or dead) pixels on the screen will be those whose control transistor has become faulty. These pixels don’t glow, they just stay black. These elements fly out of the matrix grid. Against a white background, such pixels look most noticeable.

Do not confuse dead pixels with frozen ones. Stuck is an element that glows red, green, blue, or white. They are perfectly visible on a black background. There is such a “freeze” when the subpixel “slows down” during the color update.

Checking the TV for Image Defects

As a result, there are 2 main methods of how to check the TV for the possible presence of dead pixels:

To begin with, it is recommended to perform a visual test of the TV, for which no additional programs and devices are required.

The point is to display backgrounds in several standard colors. Namely:

  • the black;
  • white;
  • red;
  • green;
  • blue.

It makes no sense to check with other colors. It is enough to use these 5 basic colors. It is with their help that stuck, burning and completely dead pixels are identified. Which ones turn out to be in your case depends on the specific situation.

Reasons for the appearance of dead pixels

The number of pixels is in the millions, which makes it impossible to guarantee the performance of each. For a number of reasons, some crystals seem to freeze and do not change orientation, substituting for different subpixels of the primary colors. The main reason for this phenomenon is the failure of the control transistor, which is why the pixel transmits only one color. The chance of healing depends on the color of the subpixel. If it is red, blue or yellow of various shades, the patient can be easily resuscitated. For treatment, program and physical methods are used. By the way, have you ever given a massage. to a monitor or TV? And they sometimes need it. But more on that later.

Much worse is the complete failure of the control transistor. the so-called inverter. In this case, the pixel or the matrix as a whole will begin to flicker, and then completely darken or lighten. Regardless of the total, this pixel can be considered non-working. It is practically impossible to replace a part without factory conditions. But there is no evidence of this practice. Broken pixels are big tricks. They can appear suddenly, or leave in English, or carry away the neighbors with them. But the main thing is that even a new TV set may already have defective pixels. This is allowed by the international specification ISO 13406-2, which formed the basis for the state standard GOST R 52324-2005. According to the document, TV displays are divided into 4 classes. The only question is how many damaged pixels are allowed within one screen. The standards for dead pixels per million are as follows:

  • Grade 1. dead pixels are not allowed. We noticed one such. demand replacement of the panel at the expense of the manufacturer. There are a small number of piece series of exclusive screens on the market.
  • 2nd class. no more than two black or white pixels on the opposite background, or five colored ones. The most popular on the market of Russia and the Commonwealth countries.
  • For the third class, 5 white dots are allowed on a black background, 15 black on white or 50 colored.
  • Grade 4 has standards that are ten times higher than the third grade.
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Assigning the display to one of the types does not guarantee high cost. From one manufacturer, a class 1 liquid crystal panel can cost three class 4 and vice versa. A similar remark applies to the rest of the characteristics. impact resistance, density, etc.

IsMyLCDOk

The program is distributed completely free of charge. The instruction appears immediately on the screen at startup. There is nothing complicated here. You just need to follow the recommendations.

The test itself is performed using the 4 main buttons on the keyboard, namely F2 – F5. There are several testing modes available. It is also worth noting the ability to display gradient and monochrome images.

Software solutions

Separately, it is worth considering the issue of how to remove the appeared dead pixels on the TV using special software.

There are 3 most commonly used software tools:

  • Bad Crystal. Allows you to cope with the problem of freezing subpixels. It is enough to run the utility and activate the recovery mode. If possible, the program will return the pixels to normal performance.
  • Undead Pixel. A utility that has shown itself well in the issue of pixel resuscitation. To restore the screen and get rid of dead pixels on the TV, you will need to launch the application and click on the Start button. A square will appear on the screen, which will change its color. The DragDrop function moves the square over the problem area. By constantly changing the color, the pixel is eventually restored. But if we are talking about completely black dots, it will no longer be possible to reanimate them.
  • Eizo Test Monitor. Works well on any device including TV panels. Includes 24 test images, allows you to optimize color parameters and check for possible damaged pixels. The utility differs in that no installation is required. The archive is simply unpacked and launched by double-clicking. Next, the Start Test button is pressed, and the test begins. In total, the utility has 8 modes of operation.

Online services

If you are not sure whether to conduct such a check, you can not even hesitate. This is highly recommended. So you can diagnose problems in a timely manner and start fixing them.

In total, there are several online services that can help identify dead pixels on a TV display. The most popular ones are:

  • It is enough to go to the site and click on the test start button. There are 7 types of tests to choose from, as well as several test variations. Compared to many other sites, it uses a looping video rather than static images. This makes it possible to find dead pixels, as well as check the speed of their update.
  • Vanity Monitor Test. A popular online service that is able to quickly test the screen and detect pixel problems. Testing is carried out using special pictures. The service has a top drop-down menu, where the required verification mode is selected.

Using the presented tools, you can quickly test the television panel, and in parallel also the screen of a monitor, laptop, tablet, etc.

Checking an LCD TV for dead pixels

Program check

Now how to check TV using special tools. There are 2 options here, which are relevant mainly for Smart TV, since there is no Internet connection on ordinary TVs. Accordingly, some solutions cannot be used.

There is far from one program for checking pixels. And they are mostly free.

The software verification method can be divided into 2 categories:

  • using software;
  • through special online services.

With their help, dead pixels are checked not only on computer monitors and laptop screens, but also on a 4K TV.

Self-check of an LCD TV is possible using several popular programs.

Prophylaxis

There are several reasons for this malfunction, which it is advisable to avoid so that you do not need to check the computer matrix for dead pixels:

  • finding the monitor in the kitchen and in other rooms with high humidity and the presence of fatty vapors in the air;
  • mechanical impact. for example, pressing the matrix with a finger;
  • reluctance of the buyer to check a new monitor for dead pixels during its purchase.

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Programming method

The method consists in the cyclic output of rapidly changing images, which, due to frequent color changes, increase the chance of returning the hung pixels to the ability to switch again.

There are many options for implementing this method through utilities, online services, and even YouTube videos. They can be used on a computer as well as on a TV when connecting a PC with an HDMI cable.

  • Bad Pixel is a professional paid utility for Windows, the creators of which promise to remove defective pixels in just 10 minutes.
  • DeadPix is ​​a universal program for Windows and Android that helps you find and then fix problem pixels using color cycling.
  • PixelHealer is another utility for Windows. Eliminates stuck pixels by fast flickering RGB colors.
  • JScreenFix is ​​an online service to run on computer, TV and mobile devices. Outputs an area with digital noise that can be moved to the desired area of ​​the screen.
  • PixelFixel is a 12-hour YouTube video that is suggested to run and leave overnight. Attention! The colors in the video change at a very high rate and can cause an epileptic seizure. Do not look at the screen, but rather turn it to the side.

Dead pixel buddy

This simple site will allow us to check the pixel state of our monitor. By filling the entire screen with a solid color, we can identify the dead pixel and determine its state. Just select the color you want to check and press the F11 key for full screen mode, you can also scroll left and right arrows to change colors on the monitor.

How to check a monitor or TV for dead pixels and get rid of the problem

You will need a free app, a Q-tip, and a little patience.

What pixel defects are there

Any abnormal pixels visible against the general background are called broken, but this is not entirely correct. Really broken or dead pixels are only those in which the transistor is out of order. They do not glow with any color and just remain black, falling out of the matrix grid. Clearly visible on a white background.

Hanging pixels on the left and right, broken ones in the center / digital-boom.ru

There are also frozen or stuck pixels. these are red, green, blue or white dots that are clearly visible on a black background. They occur when subpixels freeze when updating color.

Programmatic way

It is considered the most popular: it helps in about 80% of cases. All such programs for resuscitation and restoration of dead pixels work according to the standard principle: the colors of nearby pixels change at a high speed. the current is concentrated in the problem area, and due to this, a gradual resuscitation of the idle pixel occurs.